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Finnish-Baltic and Siberian Fairies

List of Finnish Fairy Creatures



In the previous chapters enough has been said to allow us to gain some idea of the civilisation of the Finns as a whole at various stages of their history. And now that our attention has to be turned solely to the West Finns we shall be in a better position to estimate the amount of change and evolution that has taken place in their ideas from their first appearance in Europe to the beginning of the present century. For the sake of convenience no notice was taken of the West Finns in that part of chapter iv. relating to the existing beliefs of the Eastern Finns and Ugrians. The reason is that as the following chapters contain an analysis of the beliefs of the West Finns, so far as they can be extracted from the Magic Songs in vol. ii., it is better to keep this matter together, referring back, when necessary, to any coincidences of belief and practice in chapter iv. The references in brackets refer to the numbered sections of the Magic Songs in vol. ii.

Till recent times it may be said that the West Finns held the same belief in spirits as the East Finns. They were of opinion that every lake, stream, forest, heath and swamp, every tree and flower, as well as every living being,

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was inhabited or ruled by a spirit, sometimes called a haltia, who might be of either sex, as among the East Finns. We have already learnt that haltia is an early Scandinavian loan-word meaning 'governor, ruler.' For instance, in Genesis, Joseph is termed the haltia or steward of Pharaoh's household. In the Magic Songs it occurs several times as the spirit-ruler, or wielder of authority. An exorcist declares that God is his haltia, who assisted him against sorcerers (2 f). The Creator is the haltia of the heavens (59 a). Old mother Eine, life's haltia, is invoked to rouse herself before a sorcerer rises, to help a beloved son, by whom the exorcist himself is intended (176 a). A hunter begs Annikki, Tapio's daughter, to awake with shouts the king of the forest, the haltia of the backwoods (139 n). A herdsman beseeches 'the old wife' of cattle, the haltia of kine, to awake before any sorcerer or jealous person rises (132 c). A treasure-seeker exclaims: 'Kinsmen of Hiisi, now arise! awake, thou mountain haltia!' (111). A prayer begins: 'Welcome! O Earth, welcome! Earth's haltia' (102 a). A hunter sadly complains that with other men luck does the work, their haltia fetches them coin, but his luck, his haltia, lies confused under a stone with gloves on his hands, or as we should express it colloquially, with his hands in his pockets (89 e). A snake is addressed as a ghost or phantom that looks like a haltia (29 e). Again, a wizard in working himself into an ecstasy invokes his haltia to rise from its hole, from under a fallen tree, or stone, or moss, or wherever it may be, and mentions its brilliant eyes and spotted cheek, as if he had a snake in his mind's eye (12 a, b). The technical term for being in an ecstasy (olla haltiossansa l. haltioisansa) means literally 'to be in one's haltia or among one's haltia,' in

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other words, 'to be in the spirit or among the spirits.' From the above examples we see that the heavens, the earth, the forest, the mountain, and individual men, have each their spirit, ruler, or guardian. Such an idea goes back to the earliest times. That the word 'haltia' is a loan-word is of no moment, it merely related to function and carried with it no connotation of spirit. Nearly parallel with this is the usage of the native terms isäntä, emäntä, 'house-father, master,' 'house-mother, mistress.'


Ukko, the 'old man,' was the anonymous air- and thunder-god. In the text his usual epithets are 'the god (lord, father) on high,' 'the god above the clouds,' 'the aerial god,' 'the great lord of the air,' 'the god that rules over journeys,' 'the god known everywhere,' 'the golden king,' 'the mighty father of the sky,' 'the father of the rulers of the sky,' 'the ancient father of the sky' 'who lives at the midpoint of the sky,' 'at the edge of a thunder-cloud,' 'the ruler of thunder-clouds,' 'the white-headed.' The Finns, therefore, assigned him many honorific epithets, but no wife or children. He remained a spirit almost without any anthropomorphic tendency. He is not, like the thunder-god of the Mordvins, amorously inclined, first making love to and then carrying off the fair maidens that live on the earth.

In the older period Ukko appears armed with a club or axe, usually of gold, and it is by no means certain that these were intended to symbolise the thunderbolt. He merely carries the indispensable weapons used by the ordinary Finns of that period. It might be supposed that

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the club was a metaphorical expression for a thunderbolt when he is said to strike down with his club the spirit of disease (17 x), or when he splits with it the head of rust in corn (95 b). But it cannot be so when he is invoked in child-birth to bring his golden axe or club to remove obstructions and allow a child to be delivered in safety (166 a, b); or when a wizard asks for the loan of his golden scraping knife or his silver axe to remove a tumour with (129 a); or when a trapper wants the loan of his axe to fell a honeyed aspen with which to make an attractive trap (151 a). Instead of a scraping knife Ukko, on one occasion, is requested to drop his pincers from the clouds into the right hand of an exorcist, who will then proceed to extract the arrows of a sorcerer (149 a). And as the golden king he is begged by a hunter to take his golden club and beat the woods, so that pine branches may turn into squirrels and the wooded wilds into otters (139 i). In these last six examples it is clear the speaker is not thinking of a thunderbolt, but of some appropriate instrument which Ukko would be sure to have.

When armed with a sword, which became known in the fifth Period, Ukko appears more clearly as a god of lightning, though not always. By striking fire in the sky with his fiery-pointed sword he gave humanity the great blessing of household fire (226 a). Another time when the great lord of the air struck fire, a spark shot down into the sea and turned into rock-salt for the benefit of man (223). As ruler of thunder-clouds he is asked to thresh out his fiery barns, to thunder and clatter in the bellows of the air, and to pour down fire to destroy jealous persons and witches (176 p). Sitting on the edge of a thunder-cloud he is implored to destroy with his fiery sword all injuries caused

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by spells (154 b); or to lend an exorcist his fiery sword with which to scatter and destroy such injuries (154 a); or to give a sufferer a fiery sword with which he can slash and for ever destroy the spirit of disease (154 c).

As god of the air he causes snow to fall (89 b), and is invoked to let fresh snow descend and form a good road for a sleigh to glide along (152). By a cautious soldier he is requested to bring the clouds together to rain on the touch-holes or let snow cover up the locks of the enemies’ guns (162 a). As golden king of the air he is begged to raise a storm to destroy the boats of a dreaded enemy (180 a). With drops from the clouds, with iron hail Ukko condescends to break the head of the destructive cabbage grubs (119); and with sharp needles and iron hail he is invoked to pain the head of disease (17 f). As the kindly god, Ukko is implored by a husbandman to create a cloud and let water and honey drizzle down on the newly-sown seed (130 a). On the other hand when too much rain has fallen he is besought to take his clouds to Russia, his rainbows to Karelia where they want water to baptize a child (156). As powerful father of the sky he is asked to join the clouds and rain down honey and water to make a goodly salve (181 e); or to bring a bottle of pure water and luscious juice to make a salve to promote the delivery of a child (166 c). As god above the clouds he is prayed to roll a huge cloud down on the foaming surge of certain rapids, that the boatman may not be observed and eaten up by witches or sorcerers (127 c). From always having water at command Ukko is invited to fling himself into a fire with water in his mouth and a water-hat on his neck; to throw water on burns and cause an icy blast to blow on the burnt skin to prevent suppuration (171 l). As god

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of the air it is within his province to protect cattle; accordingly he is invoked to watch over the herds at pasture (123 b); or to make the summer beautiful, the marshes placable and the forest amiable; to hide the flock under a cloud and if a greedy bear comes prowling round to turn the cows temporarily into stumps and stones (123 i).

Hitherto Ukko has been asked to do nothing more that is compatible with the character of a god or spirit ruling over the air and the thunderbolts. But in the instances that follow Ukko is rather regarded as an all-powerful god that can grant any request, a mode of viewing him that may be attributed partly to the Scandinavian belief in an all-father, partly to the permeation of Christian doctrine. There is a gradual confusion perceptible between him and the Almighty which ended in complete amalgamation. Ukko, the god that rules over journeys and governs the clouds is invoked by the leader of a bridal party to come as quick as fire from the sky, and having the size of a huge forest fir to protect the procession against enemies (117 b); or to give away a maiden's hand and lead a man about to be betrothed (117 a). A prudent soldier going into battle implores the ancient father of the sky to give him fiery furs and a flaming shirt, and further to build a wall of six fathoms in each direction to protect him against the enemy's shot (162 b); or to bring him the swords of roc men of such sort that they will not glance off a bone, nor break against a skull (163 a). A suppliant begs him to build an iron fence reaching from the sky to the earth to shelter him and his people from sorcerers (176 m, n); or to let fall from the sky a copper horn, a golden shield which the petitioner can put on and guard himself with against the

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arrows of sorcerers (176 o). The dear father in the sky is invoked to free a man from the effects of spells (165 b); or to watch jealous people, remove witches, and take care that the supplicant is not killed before his time (176 l). A hunter asks him for a straight and swift pair of snow-skates, on which he can scud rapidly to the heaths of the north where game is to be found (164). Ukko of the air is besought to stop a flow of blood with turf; failing that he is to thrust his thick thumb into the wound to serve as a stopper (177 g). Or as the white-headed one, he is asked to plough up a bit of turf to staunch the flow of blood, and then let skin grow over the wound during the night (177 h). As the Creator up above, Ukko is desired to boil water and honey to make a goodly salve. He is to take a bit of salmon, some butter, fat and a rasher of bacon, and make of the compound a potent ointment for healing fractures (181. d). Lastly, it was Ukko, the aerial god, the Creator on high, that by rubbing his hands against his left knee gave birth to three Luonnatars that they should become the mothers of iron (214 a). Here we find Ukko with the new epithet of Creator, an attribute that was not applied to him in purely heathen times.

Among the Voguls, Ostiaks, and some of the Votiaks, as we have already learnt, no sacrifices are made to the sky god, Num, Inmar, and there was no special worship of him. The same seems to have held true of the West Finns. Ukko is asked to assist, but nothing is offered or promised him in return and that was the old traditional standpoint. The idea of appealing to him at all is perhaps not earlier or not much earlier than the fourth period.

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As the name implies, Ilmarinen, the diminutive of Ilmari, was connected with the air and weather (Ilma). And there is reason, I think, to believe that he was the old air and sky god of the Finns before they ever came in contact with Europeans. Ilmari corresponds formally with the Votiak Inmar, whose name is now used to denote the monotheistic god of the Russians and of the Tatars, but in one district the word has its older meaning of the 'sky or heaven' as well, just as tängri signifies 'god and sky' among the Turkish tribes of the Altai. In other places in(m) is employed without the suffix -ar for 'God' and sky.' 1 Inm is therefore the equivalent of ilma, which, before the Lithuanian term taivas 'sky' was borrowed, included this meaning as well as 'air' and 'weather.' Then the Lapps at a comparatively recent period borrowed the name of Ilmarinen under the form of Ilmaris, and sometimes drew his portrait on their magic drums. But it is to be observed that they did not regard him as a smith, but as a god that could produce storms and bad weather. On a magic drum he takes the place usually occupied by the native wind god. 2 This conception of him agrees on the whole with Bishop Agricola's description in the middle of the sixteenth century. He terms him a god of the Tavastlanders who made calm and weather (ilma) and led travellers forward.

It would seem then that though Ilmarinen was best known as the wonderful smith, he was still regarded as an air and storm god as late as the middle of the sixteenth century. The transference from one character to another is not difficult to imagine. We may suppose that at some

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time not earlier than the fourth or fifth century, when the Finns had become familiar with the smith's craft, the clang of the hammer on the anvil and the sparks flying from the hot iron struck some one as something like the rattling of thunder accompanied by flashes of lightning. So the air god, when thundering in the clouds and launching forth his fire, became gradually assimilated with a human smith working in his forge. In this way he acquired a new anthropomorphic character and eventually became more and more separated from his aspect of the thunder and storm spirit, which was continued under the newer appellation of Ukko the 'old man.'

The original character of Ilmarinen comes out when he, together with Väinämöinen and the aerial god, is invoked by an exorcist to come to crush a malady, personified as the evil spirit, Hiisi (15 a). Again, fire is said to have originated from a spark struck in the sky by Ilmarinen and Väinämöinen, which afterwards fell to the earth (226 e). And a riddle runs thus: 'Ilmarinen struck fire, Väinämöinen caused a flash? Answer. A flash of lightning.' 1 These two companions together with Lemminkäinen are mentioned as rowing in a red boat towards the north, Ilmarinen taking the bow oar and Väinämöinen steering (107 d). The story is recited as a charm by persons travelling by water and so has a certain mythological character, but otherwise it has only a slight bearing upon Ilmarinen as an air god.

In the remaining instances in which he is mentioned in the text he appears only in the character of a smith, though not as a man living on the earth at the time he is invoked. He is appealed to rather as a divinity. The weapons and instruments he is asked to forge are purely

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imaginary and unreal. The exorcist uses his own instruments, but assumes by a figure of speech that they are the manufacture of the divine smith. This mere assumption imparted all the virtue of reality. As the everlasting hammerer he is implored to make little pincers with which a wizard can extract 'Lempo's arrow,' that is some physical ailment or disorder, from a man's body (149 b); or as the skilful hammerer, to forge a new sword, a dozen pikes and several spears for a soldier going to the wars (163 b). A best-man boasts that Ilmarinen himself shod the horse that was to carry him to woo the girls in Hiisi's castle (65). An exorcist threatens to place 'Tuoni's grub,' which generally means the tooth-worm, under the forge of Ilmarinen (21 c). Once upon a time the smith Ilmarinen was walking along a 'tinkling' road when he saw a variegated stone. He threw it into his forge fire, plied the bellows for three days, and ultimately saw the ore pouring out as copper, This he moulded into kettles (227 a). Again he finds iron sprouts in the tracks of a bear or a wolf, sets up his bellows, makes white iron, and forges it into axes, spears, etc., (214 a). In a couple of variants it is a god or else Väinämöinen that finds the iron sprouts, or seeds, and takes them to Ilmarinen to be forged into iron (214 b, e). On one occasion Pakkanen (sharp frost) attempted to freeze the smith Ilmari, but the latter plunged him into the fire till he swore that he would not do so again (93 a); in the Kalevala R. 30, 174 this fact is related of Ahti.


What part Väinämöinen played originally in the mythology of the Finns it is hard to determine. There is evidence,

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however, that he was more than a personification and embodiment of magic wisdom and of song. He possessed these attributes certainly, especially in the later tradition, but various functions are attributed to him that cannot be explained by supposing him to have been an ideal wizard and nothing more. Writing in 1551, Bishop Agricola spells the name Äinimäinen, and simply records that he was a god of the Tavastlanders, who hammered out i.e. composed songs. From this, it would appear that about 350 years ago he was looked upon chiefly as the divinity of magic song, which would likewise include supernatural wisdom. In current ballads relating his adventures, he is generally a human hero endowed with wonderful magic power. He must either have been a real, historical wizard of whom were related wondrous stories, which gradually became so overlaid with fabulous matter that the hero of them became a completely mythical personage; or he was the spirit of some natural phenomenon that in course of time became anthropomorphized like Ilmarinen. I hold to the latter opinion, and suspect that he is the sky-god under a new appellation. The differentiation would come about in this way. The sky-god was also the Thunderer; thunder is the voice of the god speaking; but speaking can easily be turned, if the god is thought of as in a joyous mood, into singing. In fact one Čuvaš expression for thundering is Asl’ adi avdat 'the great father (or old man) is singing'; more common, however, are such phrases as 'the cock is crowing,' 'the cuckoo on the top of a golden post is cuckooing!' 1 The Creator's golden wattled cock mentioned in the Magic Songs (124) is perhaps a recollection of the old thunder-bird.

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[paragraph continues] We have already seen that he and Ilmarinen gave fire to mankind, which seems to connect him with the sky-god. As the diviner as 'old as time' he is besought to utter incantations on behalf of an exorcist and to bring an iron-coloured dog to eat up the spells of sorcerers. Or he is to send some of the old folk that have long been dead and buried, to support and assist the exorcist. And he is to bring the fiery-edged sword of the air with which the supplicant will chase away corpses and frighten Hiisi's people (176 s). Here Väinämöinen is almost identified with the thunder-god, for the fiery-edged sword of the air in this passage can only mean a thunderbolt. In the next example he receives the same title of ukko, 'the old man.' As the old man, the diviner as old as time, Väinämöinen is begged to bring a scythe from Esthonia, a reaping-hook from hell with which the exorcist can facilitate a child-birth (166 f). We have seen above, that Ukko is desired to perform a similar function with his golden axe or his golden club. In the next example he appears rather as a god or spirit of vegetation or of trees, though he retains the stereotyped epithet of the 'diviner as old as time.' He is said in a variant to have put six or seven seeds into a martin-skin bag and then gone to sow the earth with trees (212 a). In one riddle he figures rather as the sun. 'Once upon a time Väinämöinen's milk-bowl upset upon a rock, its contents can never be picked up? Ans. Sunshine.' 1 On the other hand, in popular language the streamers that form on the sea after a storm are called 'the tracks of Väinämöinen's boat,' or 'the path of Väinämöinen,' as though he were regarded as a storm-god. In various parts of the parish of Sordavala there are sandy heaths where the surface

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presents huge natural ridges and furrows, like the waves of the sea. These are termed the 'ploughing of the Väinämöinens,' the word being used in the plural. In this part of the country Väinämöinens, giants, Hiisis and Lapps all mean the same supernatural beings. 1 His name, too, is borne by two celestial bodies. Orion's belt is his scythe; the Pleiades are his bast-shoe. When he and his wife set to work to sweep the sea, to mop the waves with a broom (185 b), a figure of speech is used which seems to refer to a storm sweeping over it.

He was clearly regarded as a god of the healing art, which was mainly exercised by reciting incantations, but not always. He was therefore the special friend of the wizard or exorcist summoned to eject the evil spirits that cause disease. Accordingly his strength and assistance are very justifiably invoked by exorcists when they are about to set to work (2 b, 3 a). He is implored to help a well-beloved son (i.e. the exorcist) to be the comrade of a famous man, when the latter is about to divine a 'deep origin' or to battle with disease (157 a). A fisherman invokes Ahti, the god of the sea, to send a swarm of fish to listen to the music of Väinämöinen (120 a), which evidently means the charms and incantations sung by the fisherman himself, but attributed to the immortal singer. There is much virtue in what belongs to him. The Virgin Mary is requested to take Väinämöinen's belt and his yellow cloak with which to bind up a cut vein (177 b). A bee is told to fly to old Väinämöinen's residence and snatch from his belt a honeyed wing with which to stroke a sick man (181 j). An exorcist in raising steam to make a vapour bath, salutes the steam as 'Väinämöinen's sweat' (87 c), a figure of speech which

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implies that it possessed highly remedial qualities. Kivutar (sickness and pain personified as a woman) is invoked to take a plume from the Creator's mouth or a feather from Väinämöinen's belt with which to sweep away pains and sores (128 c). A soldier bound for the wars prays for old Väinämöinen's cloak, for the mantle of the distant Lapp (99), an expression which only means a wizard in this instance. In the last five examples we note that cures or protection from danger were anticipated from the use of external means independent of Väinämöinen's power of magic song. In the next three instances he himself is expected to heal and protect from harm by purely physical agencies. Reliable old Väinämöinen, the diviner as old as time, is invited to raise his paddle [v. sword] from the sea and destroy the abscesses and scabs on a human body (146 d); or to clip wool from a stone, hair from a rock and make of it a shirt of war in which a soldier can fight in safety (162 e); or to take a bath-switch and a honied wing from his belt with which to sweep away to the land of Lapps the fearful pains of a sufferer (157 b). But it is purely as a magician that the reliable old diviner makes a boat from the fragments of an oak by singing a series of magic songs, one for each part of the boat (229). In another passage the outside chip of a gigantic oak, when struck with an axe, flew into the sea to serve as a boat for Väinämöinen, the singer, without further ado on his part (211 b).

He is also known as Väinö, and his daughter is coupled with Kivutar, the Pain-maiden, (10 c) because both were helpful in removing all sorts of pains and diseases. A soldier begs Väinö's girl, who wears golden ornaments on her temples, a copper petticoat, and a silver belt, to dash

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water on the pan of a touch-hole to prevent his enemy's gun going off (162 f). Their home is Väinölä, which is collocated with Pohjola, Ulappala, Lapland or Turja (17 x, 26 b, 149 d, 154 e, 198 a), for the far north was pre-eminently the land of wizards, sorcerers, and magic. But it is as a warrior and the old son of Kaleva, not as a singer relying on the force of magic songs, that Väinämöinen sharpens his spears and arrows before going into battle (205 f) or when he tests his sword by striking it against an iron hill (202 b).


One of the most popular of Finnish gods was certainly Tapio. The hunter depended on him for game; not so much for consumption as for their valuable furs which could be sold or bartered. The sheep and cattle, of which every family had a few, were pastured in the forest and their welfare and safety from wild beasts was therefore largely contingent on the goodwill of the forest divinities. The chief of these was Tapio, the golden king of the forest with a mossy beard and who wears a hat of fir twigs; though also known as old Ukko with the rumpled beard; the feather-hatted lord of the woods. Sometimes he was simply called 'the Forest' (139 a, c) or Kuippana 'the long-necked,' 1 Kuitua, Kuittola, Nikki Näkki, or Hitsi Hätsi. The wild animals that belong to him are figuratively spoken of as his flocks and herds, his ewes and rams, or 'drooping

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ears'; as his 'gold and silver,' and even as his 'sheaves of flax.' But in a riddle 'Tapio's bull' is a 'fir-tree.' 1

His wife has several appellations which depend partly on her frame of mind as it seemed to a suppliant hunter when invoking her. When kindly disposed she was Mielikki (the amiable) and was pictured as wearing rings and bracelets of gold; when unkind and deaf to his prayers she was Kuurikki (the deaf), was black and terrible in appearance, being horribly dressed in rags while the rings and bangles on her arms were mere withes (89 f). The name of Hiiletär (the charcoal wife) may have been assigned her for a similar reason as the last, though perhaps it was given her by charcoal-burners as she is not connected with wild animals in the one passage where she is mentioned (52 d). Hongas or Hongatar 'Fir's daughter' was a natural name for the wife of the king of the forest, who himself seems to be described as a 'hollow fir' with a fir-twig hat (139 k). This hollowness is also a feature in Teutonic folklore. In Sweden, Denmark, and Stiermark, the Forest-wife (Skogsnufva) or Elf-girl (Ellepige) or 'Wildfrau' is pictured in the popular imagination as being hollow behind like a hollow tree-stem or a dough-trough. 2 As Simanter she wears a tin sheath and a silver belt; the word perhaps is another form of Simatar (virgin honey wife), an epithet that would be given to show her sweet disposition. Mimerkki is dressed in the same way and was also of a conciliatory nature. When out of spirits and dejected she may have acquired the name of Nyrkitär. As directress of the droves (juoni) of forest cattle, the mistress of the forest receives the appellation of Juonetar.

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[paragraph continues] As ermines, stoats, and other furry animals frequent stony places, it was natural enough to call the chief in charge of the 'money' by the name of their favourite haunts, Raunikko (full of stone heaps) (153 b). As Elina, she is invoked by a snarer of hares (118 a). And another name for her is Kuuritar.

Tapio does not seem to have had many sons, as only three are mentioned. Nyypetti is asked to act as herding-boy to a herd of cattle on the summer pasturage (123 f). Nyyrikki, so called, perhaps, from being slow in his movements, is pictured as wearing a blue cloak and a tall red hat, and on one occasion as having a white beard. Pinneys is desired not to hold back the wild animals from a hunter in search of them (139 r); for his name seems to imply that he was likely to keep a firm grip (pinne) on the paternal property.

Tapio's daughters are more numerous. Tellervo tinkles in a gold and silver dress. Lumikki is so called because in charge of snow-white animals, such as the ermine, and she is besought to let them wander towards the trap of a hunter (118 b). Ristikko seems to receive her name from animals with a white cross (risti) on their breast which were under her special care. 'Flax-stalk' (päistär), as a figurative name for a long-backed and small furry animal like the ermine or the weasel, is the basis of the name Päistärys. She is requested to strew her 'flax-stalks' and 'cloaks' about, and let them run without suspicion into a petitioner's trap (153 c). Vitsäri (the whipper) is the lively woman who drives out game from Tapio's Hill. Tuulikki, the famous beauty of the woods, must have been compared in some sort of way with the wind (tuuli). Annikki is a diminutive of the Christian name Anni, 'Anne,' but it may

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have been selected from suggesting the idea of a gift (anti) giver. Two other daughters were Tapiotar and Tyytikki. The tiny lassie Pihlajatar (Rowan), the lovely Katajatar (Juniper), and the short Tuometar (Birdcherry) are three tree-spirits, but also daughters of Tapio, whose office sometimes is to herd cattle.

The daughters-in-law of the forest are Mikitar—the daughter of Mikki (Michael), a word also used as an epithet for the fox—and Varvutar (Twig's daughter), who give game to the hunter (118 c). Miiritär, whose name seems to mean that she was a very small creature, is asked by a hunter to get up a tree and listen to his songs and tell him if they are suitable (139 d). Huijutar and Siilikki, from siili, 'a hedgehog,' take charge of the wasps that haunt the woods (113). Two other forest-spirits, who are not directly connected with Tapio, should be mentioned here. The chosen Kunnotar, or the golden Kärehetär is asked to leave off melting gold or silver as a trapper has already put some into her bowl (173 a). According to Ganander (p. 36), Käreitär was the patroness of foxes who brought them to the hunter's traps.

Tapio's abode is Tapiola or Metsola (Forest-home) or Havulinna (Brushwood Castle) or the famous village of the woods (17 l, 89 a). It was sometimes imagined that in the forest there were three forts or castles of wood, bone, and stone. In the first lived the forest lassies, in the second the mistresses and the master of the forest in the fort of stone (89 f). A mere prayer was not always enough to propitiate Tapio and his numerous family; he needed an offering. Accordingly a trapper asks them to take a fancy to his groats and salt, and in return to send quantities of animals into his traps (153 b). Kuippana,

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the king of the forest, the brisk man of the woods, with a beard of tree-moss, or the liberal mistress of the forest, is desired to accept the hunter's tribute of salt and groats and send game into his traps (153 a). A hunter beseeches the grey-bearded old man of the forest and his wife, Mimerkki, to make an exchange of gold. The hunter's is Swedish gold obtained by fighting in the wars, while Tapio's, as we have seen, consists in his wild animals with precious furs (173 b, c).

The bear, as a forest animal, was naturally enough nursed by Hongatar and rocked by Tuometar at the foot of a stunted fir (193 b). And the woodland sprites, Mielikki, Annikki, and Tellervo, are requested by a bear-hunter to muzzle their 'dogs' (i.e. bears) till he can approach them (121). In order to obtain the game he covets, the hunter is ready to adopt any device. He is willing to go as Tapio's man-servant, or even as the boy who picks up the arrows, if Tapio will only be propitious (139 a). Or he asks the forest to marry his (the hunter's) men to the pleasant daughters of the woods, to the downy-breasted little chicks (139 c). If Tapio happens to be asleep he desires Annikki of the fair complexion, who wears a down-like shirt, to awake the king of the forest, or to wake up the forest-mistress by playing a tune in her ear (139 n). On one occasion he invites the forest to play the zither (kantele), so that the wild animals shall lend an ear and be attracted towards himself (139 b). He invokes the old man of the knoll with a golden breast and who wears a hat of twigs, Mielikki, Tellervo, and Nyyrikki with the tall red cap, to show him the direction he ought to take by setting up posts and landmarks (139 e). He implores old Ukko with the rumpled beard, the 'hollow fir' with

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a fir-twig hat, to beat the wilderness and make the trees resound with thuds in order to drive out the game for him (139 k). Or Tuulikki, the delightful forest-girl, is invited to chase out the animals from the slopes of the Forest Fort, and to make a fence with her hands on each side of them to keep them on the right track. If obstacles intervene she is to remove them (139 o). He beseeches the famous beauty Tuulikki, Pihlajatar, short Tuometar, and kindly Hongatar to chase wild animals in front of him, and if none are near to fetch them from Lapland (139 p). He desires the forest-youth with a golden hat and the forest-mistress Juonetar to send the best of their flock to his trapping places (139 t). If the animals are sluggish he implores the lively Vitsäri and Tellervo to take from Tapio's Hill a whip of rowan, or a cattle-scourge of juniper, with which to drive out the game (139 q). Lastly, he prays Mielikki to send plenty of animals so near him that he can knock them over with a stick, or seize them with his hands. If that is out of the question she is to support his bow or steady his gun, and thus enable him to shoot a squirrel and pay his tax (144 b).

The wild animals are represented as being kept in a magazine or storehouse. So Mielikki, the famous 'golden buckle of the woods,' is invoked to take the golden key at her side, to open Tapio's storehouse, and let the 'silver' and 'gold' escape towards a hunter dressed in white (139 f). Or Mielikki, the mother with the lovely face, is asked to open the honeyed chest and let loose a file of animals in front of a hunter. Should she be disinclined to do this herself, she is to send one of her servants (139 g). The queen of the forest, Kuuritar, is requested to open her money magazine and let out the animals for a hunter to

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catch in his traps (139 h). Annikki, the girl with honeyed mouth, is asked to open the storehouse door and throw out the hunter's share on the bough of a tree. Then she is to spin a thread along which an arrow can travel straight to the brow of a little squirrel (144 a). The forest mistress, Simanter, is begged to make a din in the copper hills, and to let the mountain storehouse be opened for the 'mountain cattle' to run out and enter the hunter's traps (151 c). Annikki, who keeps the keys, and Eva, the little serving-maid, are desired to open the magazine and let out the animals (139 n). In one instance, Tapio is humorously represented as carrying the game about with him on his own person. The good and splendid old man, the golden forest king, is implored to take his best and fattest ewes and rams from out of his shirt or his waistcoat, and to poke his 'sheaves of flax' into the traps of the supplicating hunter (151 b).

In a lesser degree Tapio, as lord of wild beasts, or one of his people, was implored to watch over flocks and herds grazing in the woods, and protect them from the attacks of bears. Thus Mielikki and Tuonetar are requested to anoint a bear's paws with wort and its teeth with honey that it may not hurt the cattle (122 b). The king of the forest, Kuitua, and the benevolent Hongas are solicited to restrain their 'dog' (i.e. a bear) from injuring the herds (122 b, 123 c). The forest king, Kuippana, is supplicated to control his 'bastard son' (i.e. a bear), and to stick a mushroom up its nose to prevent its getting scent of the pasturing kine (122 c). The good mistress, Hongatar, and the observant Tapiotar are urged to keep a bear in check and prevent it doing harm (122 d). The forest Nikki Näkki [v. Hitsi Hätsi], the golden king of the woods, and

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the kindly mistress are invoked to take care of the herds grazing in the forest (123 g). In the capacity of herd-girls the tiny lassie Pihlajatar and the lovely Katajatar are desired to cut a branch from the back of Tapio's Hill, and with it drive the cattle from the woods back to their own home (123 l).

Although evil might come from Metsola (17 l), its usual epithet is the delightful Metsola, and it was full of honey. A bee is asked to fetch honey from Metsola, luscious stuff from Tapiola from which an ointment may be made (181 f). And Vuotar, the maker of salves, concocted them a whole summer in Metsola, for delightful honey is there from which she made the unguents (232 f).


Originally Hiisi was a spirit of the forest that dwelt in wooded hills. In the middle of the sixteenth century Bishop Agricola describes him as a Karelian god 'who allowed profit to be made out of the beasts of the forest.' But the Bishop also used the word in the plural (hijet) to translate 'high places' in the passage: 'And the high places of Isaac shall be desolate' (Amos vii. 9); and 'groves' in the passage: 'I will cut off the groves out of the midst of thee' (Micah v. 14). When the Bishop wrote, the word was therefore applicable to a 'sacred grove' where sacrifices were made. The corresponding word in Esthonian, hīz´, is also used in the sense of a sacred grove or thicket, which is usually on elevated ground. In several passages in the Magic Songs, Hiisi is found as a parallel word to 'hill, mountain,' showing that the two words are in a certain measure synonymous (9 b, 14 i, 65, 187).

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[paragraph continues] He is often represented as dwelling in or being connected with a hill. Thus a treasure-seeker invokes a kinsman of Hiisi, the ruler (haltia) of the mountain, to show him where to go (111). A best-man boasts that he has wooed the girls of Hiisi's fort, the cousins of Rakko Vuori (65). And the origin of the horse is said to be from Hiisi, that of the splendid foal from the mountain (187). The recollection that Hiisi was a forest divinity is retained in the following examples. Hiisi's little boy, that rides a good two-year-old, is told to take a golden spur from a golden chest, and with it to tickle and prick the flanks of wild animals to make them run in the direction of the hunter (139 a). In order to quicken the pace of the sluggish animals of the forest another hunter desires that Hiisi's hottest coals may be placed under their hind feet (151 c). And to the hare is given the nickname of 'the bandy-legged of Hiisi (67 b).

That Hiisi in the popular mind was intimately associated with trees and forest is shewn by various riddles in which 'Hiisi's elk' or his 'elk with one hundred horns' is a 'pine tree,' and 'Hiisi's land' is the 'forest.' And though in three others 'the neighing of Hiisi's horse in Hiisi's land' stands for 'thunder,' 1 we must not connect him in any way with the thunder-god. The noise made by wind rushing through trees, thought of as horses, had sufficient resemblance to the whinnying of a horse and to thunder, to invite a concocter of conundrums to regard them as identical. So too Hiisi's elk, horse, and ox, mentioned in the Magic Songs, seem to have been originally playful names for a large coniferous tree, though the terms were sometimes employed with only a faint or more usually complete want of perception of their proper signification.

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[paragraph continues] The original animal assigned to Hiisi must have been the elk, reindeer, or ox; the horse is manifestly a later substitution. For instance, Hiisi's ox, that ascends the Hill of Pain, has one hundred horns on his forehead and one thousand nipples on its breast, each full of ointments (109 i); here the branches and multitudinous small projections on a resinous pine-tree seem to form the basis of the imagery. Hiisi's chestnut horse with a fire [coloured] forelock and an iron [coloured] mane is so tall that it must be bridled from the top of a house and saddled standing on a fence. On its croup is a lake from which sorcerers drink, and it does not sweat (9 b) or slip on the ice-like path of the air (9 a, 65). Several points in this description appear to be reminiscences of a dendrous prototype; the chestnut or reddish brown colour, the extraordinary height and the quality of not sweating, while the lake on the croup suggests the idea that the tree was partly hollow like Tapio. A pond of water on the croup is, however, characteristic of other horses (14 h, 52 d) besides Hiisi's, and in modern songs has become a commonplace epithet for a wonderful horse. Again, in Hiitola there is an ox [v. elk] with one hundred horns, with a mouth one hundred fathoms wide, and a throat like three cataracts that can extract the arrows of a sorcerer (37 c). Here the mouth and awful throat are amplifications of the singing exorcist, while the meaning of an elk with one hundred horns is found in the riddles. In the next example the imagination of the singer has carried him so far that only in describing the back does he remain faithful to the prototype. The head of Hiisi's horse is said to be of stone, its shanks of copper, its back of tarry wood, its feet of iron, and its muzzle of fire (9 a). In a

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still later example, as I suppose, Hiisi's elk or reindeer is invoked to drive away the snakes and adders that drink the ale of the mistress of the house (91), where nothing is remembered but the fact that he owns such animals.

In course of time Hiisi acquired a very bad character, and in modern times he is more or less synonymous with the devil. The date of this change is to be placed, I imagine, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, when Christianity began to spread. That the missionaries fixed upon him specially is an indication that he was held in great estimation by the heathen Finns, and that his worship in the sacred groves was a special thorn in the sides of the preachers of the new religion. Sacrifices to Hiisi would be placed under a ban, and the native converts would gradually come to think of him as a very evil spirit, hardly distinguishable from the devil himself. In the Magic Songs he is sometimes called the humpback from the home of gods (1 c, 128 h, 166 g). The spirit of disease, or sickness of any kind, is addressed as 'Hiisi!' (5 b, 8 b, 22, 56) or as 'hound of Hiisi!' (8 d). A tumour is his toadstool; a snake is Hiisi's scourge or Piru's whip; a spell-sent injury is his cancerous sore (154 b); toothache is his son or his cat (114 a, c); a stye in the eye is Hiisi's blemish (46 a); and rash owes its origin to a water-Hiisi (206 b). As a bird of ill-omen the body, legs and guts of the raven are made of Hiisi's glove, spinning-staff, and belt appendages (200 b). The snake originated from his saliva (203 a); or he gave life to the spittle of Syöjätär and made it into a black snake (203 c). The tremulous aspen is his harlot son (212 i). And nightmares are termed 'Hiisi's corpses.'

As diseases and maladies were often thought of as the

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bolts, spears, arrows, or jagged spikes of a sorcerer or of some evil spirit like Hiisi, Lempo and Piru, this armoury of weapons had to be forged somewhere. Accordingly, Hiisi's home, Hiitola, is provided with a smithy where such instruments are manufactured. There Piru, Äijö's son, forges bolts and jagged spikes to launch into some wretched man's body, and even there an exorcist can give an order for pincers for extracting them again (37 a). In a charm against pleurisy it is related that Hiisi's little girl saw the chips of a huge oak floating on the sea and carried them home. In reply to her brothers’ question she says that sorcerer's arrows might be made of them. Hiisi overheard this, and sent his son to the smithy to make them into spears and arrows (211 b). In a variant Hiisi's iron-toothed dog sees an oak-chip floating on the water, snaps it up and brings it to Hiisi's daughter who thought that arrows for a sorcerer might be made of it if taken to a smith (211 a). Once when the people of Hiitola celebrated a wedding and held a drinking-bout, they killed a horse and sprinkled the blood at the back of the forge of Hiitola (210 c). The idea of a smithy of course suggested coals and soot. So a man wishing to ward off a jealous eye expresses a hope that it may be filled with Hiisi's slag and soot or flow like butter into Hiisi's bin of coals (3 b). From his coals and fire comes the whooping-cough (23). An exorcist consigns the toothache into Hiisi's coals, into the fire of the evil power (114 b). A jealous person adjures Hiisi to poke his pole for stirring coals between two lovers in order to separate them (134). And a hunter desires that Hiisi's hottest coals may be put under the hind feet of reluctant wild animals to hasten their movement towards himself (151 c).

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This association of Hiisi with fire and coals made the transition easy to identify Hiitola with Hell and Hiisi with Piru and the Evil Power. And in the following examples it is rather as an infernal power, perhaps in despair of other assistance, that he is invoked as a helper, just as the devil was invoked by witches and sorcerers in other parts of Europe in the Middle Ages. The old man and old wife of Hiisi, the fiery-bearded of Hell, is requested to bring people from the hill to hold down a horse about to be castrated (158 a). An exorcist invokes the aid of the terrific heroes of Hiitola, the tall men of Pirula, to extract 'arrows' (37 c). Fiery Hiisi is desired to come from fiery Hell with his three sons and two daughters and to press his shaggy glove against a torn vein; failing that he is to tear a collop from his fleshy thigh to plug the hole with (177 k). Hiisi, the Pirulainen (devil's son), is asked to remove his 'sting' or 'goad' from a human skin and plunge it instead into the hard bones of a bear (149 g). As the humpback he is invited to come from Hiitola, from the home of gods with his sons and servant girls to destroy an evil. He is to bring a scythe from Hell and give it to an exorcist who will then cut out the evil that causes the sick man pain (128 h). Again the humpbacked of Hiitola is asked to come in a golden sleigh in which is a golden axe and with it to remove obstructions and facilitate a child-birth (166 g). A man wishes that the bloody cloak of Hiitola, that Hiisi's gory rug, needing five men to lift, may be bound across the eyes of an envious person (3 d). Hiisi or Lempo is requested by a soothsayer to lend his linen cap, his broad-brimmed hat, into which to throw the alder slips used for divining (59 c). Hiisi is invoked to close a dog's mouth with his tall hat, or Lempo is to do so with his broad-brimmed

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hat (126 c). A man wishing to pass a dog unobserved desires that the bloody cloak of Hiitola or Lempo's gory rug may envelop its head and ears so that it shall neither see nor hear (72 a). A man hoping to render an enemy's gun useless desires that the hide of an elk from Hiisi's land may take possession of the gun, may twist the touch-hole pan, and smash the 'egg,' i.e. the bullet, so that it shall do him no harm (150). Probably to account for something bad in the nature of copper, its origin is derived from Hilahatar, Hiisi's girl, Hiisi's old wife, or Hiisi's mare having staled on a rock. The stale dried up and became copper ore (227 b).

His daughter Hippa, and his cat Kipinatar, are requested to tear and torture a thief till he restores the stolen property (174). His maiden Hiki-tyttö is implored by an operator to sharpen a knife with sweat (hiki), so that he may excise a tumour without hurt to the patient (135). But his girl Hiki-tukka (sweaty hair) steals milk, and takes it to Mana or to Tuonela (88 a).

Though originally Hiisi had nothing to do with water, an evil water-spirit could be called a water-Hiisi. As we have seen before, a water-Hiisi was the cause of rash (206 b). An exorcist asks whether a certain malady has come from the homes of Nixies (lumme-koira, 'dog with ears like a water-lily leaf'), from the dens of water-Hiisis (5 b). And the daughter of Tuoni (Death), when in the pangs of labour, rushes into the sea, into the den of a water-Hiisi (216 b).

It is not quite certain whether the word Hiisi can be identified formally with the Lapp Sieite, Seita (p. 163). Whether they have the same origin or not, they have several points in common. The position of the seita was

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often on high ground like Hiisi's Hill, and consisted of a tree-stump, post, or small pile of stones, which in a treeless district might be taken to represent the stump of a tree. The fresh twigs and leaves spread under them, and renewed annually, might also be taken to mean the seita was originally a tree-spirit. The same may be said of the birch or fir twigs, changed every spring, that sometimes represent the Votiak voršud; and of the fagot of twigs, also replaced by a new fagot once a year, in which the kuda vodiž or house-spirit of the Čeremis had his habitation. Before becoming a forest-spirit, Hiisi no doubt was a tree-spirit. Judging from the Lappish, Čeremisian, and Votiak analogies, it is probable that at one time he was a very favourite divinity of the protohistoric West Finns, and in some measure a family or clan god, like the Seitas and the Stor Junkares of the Lapps, who give liberally of the wild animals of the boundless forests, or, as they expressed it in later days, of his 'forest gold and silver.'


Though there is no direct trace of it in the Magic Songs, Lempo seems to have been originally a forest-spirit of a malignant kind. For among the Vepsas living between Lakes Ladoga and Onega the Lempos are still regarded as evil spirits of the forest, in stature as tall as trees, who do their best to lead travellers astray. As the Vepsish form of the word, lemboi, means not only 'devil' but also 'fire, flame,' 1 it is possible that Lempo was at one time a personification of an ignis fatuus, or Will o’ the Wisp, a phenomenon that in Finnish is generally termed virva,

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virva-tuli. In many respects he is synonymous, or nearly so, with Hiisi, Piru, and Evil in general. Disease is addressed as 'Lempo' (5 c); a tumour is Lempo's lump (28 b, 129 a), or his whorl, his ball (201); a hornet is his cat or Hiisi's bird (214 a); stitch and pleurisy are termed the arrows of Piru, the leaf-headed spears of Lempo (37 b), or it is his arrow, his bloody knife (149 b); toothache is Lempo's dog or Hiisi's cat (114 a). Piru made arrows, Lempo leaf-headed spears from the boughs of a fiery oak, from the splinters of an evil tree, and then shot them into a human body (211 c). Lempo, Piru the limping fellow, is asked to extract his arrows, made perhaps from an evil oak, and shoot them down the throat of a raven, which will carry them to Lempo's family and place of birth, never to be seen again (149 f). For the raven is also Lempo's bird, and its breast-bone, tail and guts were made of his spinning-wheel, sail, and needle-case (200 a). If a knife slips in the hand of an operator, it is the work of Lempo, though he is made to suffer for it by being cut in two with a knife made by himself even though sitting at the time on his mother's knee (31, 55 a, b). Homma, the most brisk of kings, is invoked to take a piece of flesh from Lempo's thigh, from the groin of the evil spirit, and with it plug a severed vein (177 j).


Living so much as they did either on the sea or near large lakes the Finns had often occasion to invoke the aid of the chief water-spirit, Ahti, or of his wife Vellamo. Thus a man travelling by water implores Ahti and Vellamo to tranquillise the waves and the force of the water (107 b).

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[paragraph continues] When descending dangerous rapids a boatman prays the golden king of the water, the gracious Ahti of the waves, to come and steer with his sword, so that the boat may keep clear of rocks (127 b). Litvetti or Livetti, the king of the waters beneath the stream, is invoked to make the rocks that lie in the rapids as soft as moss (127 a). If, when journeying by water, the oars are too short, the rowers feeble, and the coxswain is as helpless as a babe, Ahti is besought to give better oars. And if the waves run too high, he and his sons are to still them (178 a). The old woman below the waves, that lives near foam, is asked to ascend to the surface to collect the foam and take charge of the foam-capped waves in front of a sailing boat (178 c). But danger at sea, or on a lake or river, did not arise solely from storms and rapids; peril was to be anticipated from spells and witchcraft. Hence a man beseeches Ahti, the master of the water, to give him his oars and a boat before the petitioner ventures to cruise over waters inhabited by witches, and also to allow the boat to glide smoothly along (178 b). Melatar (Oar-wife), the gracious woman, is asked for her steering oar (mela) to steer with, while passing along spell-bound streams (127 a).

Help in other ways was also to be obtained from water-spirits. An exorcist implores the blue-capped mistress of the waters to rise from the waves to strengthen and support a weak, unsupported man. She is to raise men from the sea and land-locked lakes, bowmen from streams, and swordsmen from wells, to help the petitioner against his enemies (176 q). Another exorcist invokes the men of the sea, the heroes of inland lakes, the 'scaly cloaks' from the gravel, the 'sandy shirts' from the pool, who are as tall as pillars of cloud or as huge forest firs, and a thousand

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armed men to follow him and overthrow his enemies (176 u).

As lord of the waters Ahti and his wife ruled over the fish, and were therefore invoked by fishermen. Thus foam-mantled Ahti of the sea, the reedy-bearded old man, is requested to put on his gift-giving clothes and draw a crowd of fish to listen to Väinämöinen's music (120 a), by which we have to understand the magic songs of the fisherman. Another man desires Ahti, the master of the waves, the ruler of a hundred caves, to send fish into his net (120 b). Or a fisherman implores the damp-bearded, golden king of the water, who wears a slouching hat, to come and fish with him as a sure means of getting plenty (120 d). The old wife of the sea with a reedy breast is besought to send perch to tug the lines set by the petitioner (120 e). Another fisherman asks the assistance of Vellamo, who has a reedy breast and wears a shirt of reeds, and he will give her in return a beautiful linen shirt spun by the daughters of the Moon and Sun (120 c). Lastly, the beautiful old wife Juolehetar, the benevolent mistress of the water, is implored to send shoals of fish in the direction of the fisherman's nets (120 f).

On one occasion it is related that when Sharp Frost tried to freeze the sea, the warship of Ahti remained unaffected. It then tried to freeze the god, who however knew a trick or two, for he shore moss and fluff from a stone, made it into socks and mitts, and so was able to hold Sharp Frost and prevent his getting away (93 b).


The earth spirits were not very prominent personalities in the mythology of the Finns and are not often invoked.

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[paragraph continues] When this happens it is sometimes to obtain the assistance of the dead, who had been buried in the earth, but whose spirits still continue to live. So Earth's daughter, the girl of dry land (manue), is asked to listen to the golden words of an exorcist and to raise from the earth 100 men without swords and 1000 men with swords to help him against wizards and sorcerers (176 h). The old crone beneath the earth (manner), the boy of the lowest depths of the earth, is invoked to extract the arrows of a sorcerer with her fingers or her back teeth. If that is of no avail she is to raise her men from the earth, her heroes from the hard dry land (mantu), (149 c). The old man of the earth is invited to rise from out the earth, the son of the field from out the headrig, or from the side of a church with 100 planks, to help a man to work, to make a fence, or to row over the water (176 i). A wayfarer implores the old wife of dry land (mantu) and the primeval master (peri-isäntä) to rise from the earth to aid a well-beloved son and to be his comrade while travelling (138). Before lying down to sleep a man salutes the earth, the dry land (manner), and the master of the dry land (137).

As the earth also causes trees, herbage and seed to grow, we find it stated that grass is made to sprout by Pelermoinen, to grow from the earth by the soil, mantu (45 d). A tree is the creation of God, a shoot made to sprout by earth's daughter, Maatar (87 c). A sower beseeches the old wife below the ground (manner), the earth's mistress, the old wife of the soil (mantu) to cause herbage to grow; for the earth never fails if the food-mothers (einetten emät) so desire (130 c). Skin eruptions (maahinen) were popularly supposed to result from the anger of an insulted earth-elf (maahinen), who revenged himself by sending a

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rash on his insulter. An exorcist declares that a rash is from the earth by birth and arises from the anger of the earth or of water. Its legs are even shorter than those of a worm or snake. If it has come from the earth, fire or water, it is to return there (206 a). Again, a rash (maahinen) took its origin from a water-Hiisi, who was rowing in a boat, reached the land like a strawberry, i.e. unobtrusively, bashfully, and fell down like a lump of wheaten dough, i.e. helplessly and clumsily (206 b).

The earth's mistress, Manuhutar, is said to have made a dog's head from a grassy knoll, its legs from stakes, its nose of wind, etc. (198 b).

Among the earth-spirits must be included, as a later development after the introduction of agriculture, Pellervoinen or Pellermoinen—a diminutive of pelto 'a ploughed field,' who is solely associated with the growth of vegetation. Thus grass is made to grow from the earth by Mantu (the soil), and to sprout or become bushy by Pellermoinen (45 b). The Fir, the useless boy, was brought forth by Syöjätär, was formed from the earth by Maajatar, was made bushy by Pellervoinen and nailed down, i.e. fast rooted, by Naservoinen or Natulainen (212 g). Bent-grass is said to have sprung from a pearl that fell from the Lord, from the hand of Jesus on the unploughed edge of Pellervoinen, on the edge of Osmo's field (220).

In the remaining examples he appears rather as a spirit of vegetation who performs his functions by sowing the ground. Thus Pellervoinen, the boy or son of the field, Sampsa the tiny little boy, sowed swamps and firm land and succeeded in getting other trees to grow, but not the oak. At last, after the lapse of a week it struck root, was drawn upwards by Jesus and made to grow by the soil

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[paragraph continues] (224 e). Again, Sampsa, the boy Pellervoinen, put six or seven grains or seeds into a martin-skin bag and went to sow the land. He sowed firm land, swamps, sandy clearings run to waste, and stony places. All sorts of different trees grew up, each adapted to the soil on which it was sown (212 a). The same is told in different words of Semmer, the limping or stooping boy—an epithet that probably has reference to the action of sowing—who is evidently Sampsa or Pellervoinen under a different name (212 b).

In an interesting song, collected in Ingria by the late Mr. V. Porkka, Sämpsä Pellervoinen appears very clearly as the spirit of vegetation that sleeps all winter, but is awoke in summer by the genial warmth. I give it here in a slightly curtailed form:—

'Why do our oats and rye not grow at all in the clearings and in the vales, on the hillock of Sämpsä, on the hill of Pellervo?

'Sämpsä is asleep in bed with seven crosses on his back with ten finger rings at his side. His shins are visible in the bed, his red stockings in the straw.

'There is no one to awake Sämpsä, to cause Pellervo to rise.

'The manly Winter-lad jumped up to awake Sämpsä, to cause Pellervo to rise.

'He took a horse of the Wind, a young horse of Ahava and began to drive with the Wind, to dash forwards with Ahava.

'He drove up to Sämpsä's bed: "Get up, Sämpsä, from your bed to excite the rye, to hurry the growing corn."

'Sämpsä forthwith replied: "I shan't get up for you. I shall get up for another man. You did wrong to come,

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did worse when you returned. You blew the leaves off the trees, the catkins off the grass, and blood from the maidens."

'Who summoned Sämpsä to appear, who cause Pellervo to rise?

'The manly Summer-lad jumped up, etc.

'He took a horse, etc.

'He drove up, etc.

'Sämpsä forthwith replied: "I shall get up for you, but not for another man. You did well to come, better when you went away. You blew leaves upon the trees, catkins upon the grass, and blood into the maidens."' 1


The word for nature (luonto), like luoja 'Creator,' is a derivative of luo 'to make a beginning,' 'to throw up or off,' 'to create.' And by 'nature' we have to understand, not external nature, but, the force behind it, a female personification of the energy of nature. An abstract idea of this kind is far from original and no great age can be assigned to the passages in which luonto or Luonnotar 'the daughter of nature' occur. As personifications of a creative energy the birch-tree is said to have been created by three Luonnotars (212 h). And Ukko, the aerial god, the Creator on high, after rubbing his palms against his left knee, produced three Luonnotars to be mothers of iron, which they afterwards milked from their breasts (214 a). The daughter of nature (luonto), Udutar, and the sharp maiden Terhetär sifted mist in a sieve at the end of a misty promontory, thereby giving origin to fevers and

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pleurisy (211 d). The three sisters have a home given them in the sky in a story in which the bear is said to have been born on the horns of the moon, on the back of the seven stars, beside the maidens of the air, near Nature's daughters (193 b). But the original idea underlying their name is quite lost in the narrative in which three Luonnotars walking by the sea observe the spittle of Syöjätär on the shore and wonder what would become of it if the Creator gave it life. Eventually Hiisi—not the sisters—turns it into a snake (203 c).

The recuperative power of nature would naturally occur to exorcists and wizards when healing the sick, and in a more objective form would be appealed to for assistance. Old mother Kave (the woman), the daughter of nature (luonto), the oldest of womankind, the first mother of individuals, is therefore invoked to come and see pains and remove them (128 g). Almost in the same terms she is implored to help an exorcist (1 c). And under the same title she is invited to allay the pains of child-birth because she formerly freed the moon from imprisonment in a cell, and the sun from a rock (166 d). But the original idea is on the wane in a charm for relieving pain, in which it is related that three Luonnotars sit where three roads meet and gather pains into a speckled chest or a copper box, and feel annoyed if pains are not brought to them (10 b). And the old idea of her functions is missing where the woman (kave), the old wife Luonnotar, the darling and beautiful, is asked to point out the path to a bridal procession (117 a). Or when she is invited to bewitch sorcerers and crush witches; to weave a cloth of gold and silver, and make a defensive shirt under which an exorcist can live safely with the help of the good God (176 e). In

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the next two examples Nature can scarcely be separated from God the Creator and seems only another term for him. A soldier in time of war implores the Creator, Nature (luonto), the God on high, to save men armed with swords, and crews with their freights from the murderous waves of men (162 c). And to avert danger from spells a man beseeches the Creator, Nature, the God on high, to save him from the spells of villagers with words (i.e. counter-spells) framed by the Creator and prescribed by the Holy Ghost (165 a).

She appears in a very different character when described in two instances as the furious old wife, the portly woman Luonnotar, who began to sweep the sea, to mop the waves with a broom, with a cloth of sparks on her head and with a cloak of foam over her shoulders. Eventually some of the sweepings stick in her teeth and become the origin of toothache (185 b, c). In a variant, as we have seen above, the same is told of Väinämöinen and his wife. Perhaps in both instances we should rather read Louhiatar, the mistress of Pohjola, as the events related would be in harmony with her character.

In another group of instances the wife or daughter of Nature appears as the personification of the warm, genial, growing weather that accompanies a southerly wind and receives the appellations of Suvetar 'the wife or daughter of summer, or of the south wind,' and Etelätär 'the wife or daughter of the south (wind).' She is invoked in this capacity by the husbandman and the owner of herds. Thus Etelätär the youthful, the boisterous and jolly girl, is asked to cause a honeyed cloud in the sky and to rain honey and water down on the growing corn (130 b). Suvetar and Etelätär, the old wife of nature, is implored to bring her horn from

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the sky or from the depths of the earth and then blow it, so that lakes of milk and streams of butter may issue forth. By blowing she is to beflower knolls, make beautiful the sandy heaths and turn swamps into honey on which the supplicant can feed his herds (123 e). Excellent Suvetar, Nature's old wife Etelätär, is besought to bore holes in the fields and cause liquid honey to flow on each side of the pasturage; she is further to sink a splendid well from which the herd can drink and then give rivers of milk (132 a). The sane personalities are requested to feed the cows from the moist hillocks and verdant knolls that they may yield abundance of milk. If the milk has been carried away she is to blow a horn that came from the sky and let the milk run back through the horn (132 b). The distinguished Suvetar, Nature's old wife Etelätär, is desired to feed and tend a herd of swine when it is sent into the woods (161). In the last example the original conception of Nature is quite obliterated though she still remains beneficent. The distinguished woman Suvetar, Nature's old wife Etelätär, that watches herds, is invoked to clean out the byre and to bring good luck. She is then to make a golden comb or a silver brush and attach it to the doorpost for the cattle to rub against (123 a).


The Maidens of the air, of springs, dells, swamps, etc., are beneficent beings, and were often invoked for extinguishing fire and cooling burns. The four anonymous maidens first mentioned are perhaps the Luonnotars. Four maidens, three celebrated daughters, were formerly mowing grass on

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a misty cape in a foggy island and making it into hay. After spreading it out a fiery Tursas from Turjaland came and burnt it to ashes. It happened opportunely that they were short of ash and in need of lie to wash the head of the sun's son, but before they could collect the ash a north-easter whisked it away to the banks of a holy stream and from it a splendid oak sprang up (224 a). In another version the four maidens, a triplet of brides, are making hay when a boy from Pohjola or an eagle from Turja came and burnt the hay, put the ash into his wallet and carried it to Lapland where it was sown in black mud and from it sprang a huge oak (224 b). Again, four maidens find a sapling oak and plant it in an island formed where three rivers had flowed from a tear shed by a Kyytöläinen (224 c).

In a charm against injuries from fire, Ismo, one of the daughters of the air, is asked to come with the speed of thought and pour herself out like foam upon her son's evil work and throw water from her apron on the burns (140 b). Nunnus or Munnus of the daughters of the air is requested to bring frost and ice, as there is frost enough in the air, to freeze the fingers of an exorcist and allow him to handle fire unhurt (172 d). After Ukko had struck fire in the sky and put it into a golden bag he gave it to an Air-maiden to rock, who carelessly let it fall to the earth (226 a). A holy maiden on a cloud, a woman (kapo) on the rim of a rainbow with a golden box under her arm and a golden wing in her hand, wiped away the pain caused by burns and salved the injuries of fire (52 e). A maiden standing by a little pond in a drop of water in a cloud carries slush and ice in her arms with which she extinguished fire and cooled the burns it had caused (52 f). Again, in order to extinguish

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fire an exorcist says he will raise up Sumutar (daughter of Mist), the portly woman, from the swamp and she will repair the injury done (52 b). In the next example the character of the Air-maiden changes, though she still belongs to cloud-land. A little girl, a woman (kapo), appeared on the edge of a rainbow and while smoothing her hair the milk in her breast overflowed, fell on a honey-dropping meadow, and from it salves and ointments are obtained (232 d). In the next two examples her function is entirely different. A maiden lives in the air, on the edge of a little cloud, with a skein of veins on her lap and a roll of skin under her arm. She let them fall on the earth and from them bits of skin are taken to place on wounds from the tooth of a wolf or the claws of a bear (25). A maiden from above the air, from the middle of the sky, is desired to come in a copper boat and row with honeyed oars round a wound caused by iron; to row in a boat made of veins through the bones and joints; to lengthen short veins, shorten those that are too long and arrange them in their proper places. Then with a needle and silk thread she is to stitch up the ends of the veins (140 b). These last two Air-maidens cannot be very different from Suonetar, where the beauteous woman of veins (suoni), the beautiful Suonetar, who spins veins from a golden tuft on a copper spinning-rock and weaves a cloth of veins, is invoked to approach and tie up the ends of broken veins (140 c).

An exorcist requests a maiden to rise from a dell, from inside a frosty spring, with her clothes all over frost and rime in order to gag Fire's mouth and weigh down the head of Panu (171 f). A dear, clean-faced girl is desired to rise from a dell, from the corner of a swamp, and bring

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some cooling stuff to lay upon a burn (171 g). A frosty maiden, an icy girl crouching at the mouth of a frosty spring with a golden ladle in her hand is invoked to throw water upon burns (171 b). In a charm to excite love a grey-eyed maiden is besought to rise from a spring and help a darling wife. She is to fetch water from the spring of Love that the wife may wash her baby, her little bullfinch, and make it very beautiful so as to be admired by every one (133 e). In a charm to fortify water and give it virtue a slender-fingered maiden is invoked to rise from a spring or from the gravel and to fetch energetic serviceable water from Jordan in which Christ was baptized (179). Lastly, a maiden from a dell, from the humid earth, or a warm maiden from a spring, a 'blue socks' from a swamp, a swarthy girl with shaven head and skinless teats was holding a copper box containing a golden comb. One of the teeth of the comb fell out and from it sprang a splendid oak the head of which seized the sky and its branches held the clouds (224 d).

The Mist- and Fog-Maidens differ considerably from their sisters of the air. The Mist- and Fog-Maiden and the Air-maiden Auteretar is asked to sift down mist and fog to prevent an enemy seeing either to attack or to escape (180 b). The Maid of Mist and Fog is invited to clip wool from a rock and make a shirt of mist, a copper cloak, which an exorcist can wear day and night as a protection against sorcerers and Lapps (168 f). With the epithets of 'leaf bud,' 'ship-borne yarn,' i.e. dressed in fine linen, she is invoked to scatter fog from a sieve before the wild animals of the forest, when they approach a hunter, so that he may have time to get his bow ready (139 s).

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Fire is the offspring of Höyhenes of the Panutars (Fire's daughter), of Lemmes of the Lentohatars, who gave birth to her child in the sea. She could not hold or touch it and from that she knew it must be fire (226 d). Höyhenes of the Panutars is invoked with Nunnus mentioned above to bring frost and ice to freeze an exorcist and allow him to handle fire without hurt (172 d). Panutar, the best of girls, is asked to come and quench a fire by putting it into her clothes and keeping it safe there (172 c). An anonymous Maid of Fire is desired to extinguish Fire and repair Panu's work. She is to bring frost, ice, and iron hail to apply upon the burns. If that is not enough she is to poke a heifer's hide into Fire's mouth or throw it over Panu's head (171 k).

The Maid of Pain and Sickness, Kivutar, in spite of her name, is always invoked as a kindly, benevolent personality. Kivutar has a kettle, the daughter of Väinö a pot, in which she boils pains on the Hill of Pain and then flings them into a hole nine fathoms deep, so that they cannot possibly escape (10 c). The vehement maid of Kipula, sitting on a speckled stone, spins pains on a copper spindle, winds them into a ball and hurls them into the sea (10 c). The good mistress Kivutar, the distinguished Vammotar (daughter of Wounds), is asked to take a feather, and sweep away wounds, to put them into her glove, which she is then to throw down on the Hill of Pain, on which is a big stone. Then she is to break the stone, to poke the glove inside and roll it into the depths of the sea (128 c). The lovely old wife of Pains, the good mistress Kivutar is requested to come and see the sufferings in a human body and make them cease. She is to wrap them up in a bundle and throw them into a mountain

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cleft, into a blue stone, into a liver-coloured chink, where they will never be heard of again (128 e). Kirsti, the maid of Pains, sits on a stone of pain where three rivers flow, grinding the stone of pain, twirling the hill of pain. She is asked to gather the pains into a hole of a blue or speckled stone and then roll them into the water (128 a). An exorcist wishes that certain pains may be shot into the cup of Kivutar, into the box of Vammotar, into the bed of Vaivatar (daughter of Suffering), or down on the pillow of Päivätär (17 z). The Maid of Swellings, Kullatar, the active girl, the packer-up, is desired to pack up her packages, to remove her needless and monstrous things and take them to an apple or an oak tree (129 b). The beautiful old mother of Pains, the great mistress of the Hill of Pain, the old maker of Salves, that makes the best of magic cures, is requested to try if certain ointments are good and if so to bring them and anoint a sick man's wounds (181 e). It is only when we come to origins that the old wife or daughter of pain and sickness is regarded as an evil spirit. Inflammatory wounds result from the fire that fell from a fiery horn which Kivutar, the old wife of Pain, was carrying (10 d). The daughter of Pain, the daughter of Death, fell asleep on a meadow, was made pregnant by an east wind and gave birth to a snake (203 d). And the daughter of Pain and Tuoni's son are the parents of snails (184).


The word Pohjola means 'the home of the north (pohja),' though the term is quite vague, indeterminate, and without geographical significance. Another and older meaning of

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pohja is 'the bottom or lower end of anything,' for instance, of a cask, sack, or haystack. Pohjola is described as murky, and with a speckled lid, where there is neither sun nor moon; the gate of the north is immense, the pass of the atmosphere (ilma) is hingeless (17 m). In dark Pohjola, in strong Sarentola, there is a fiery river throwing off sparks, and this is drunk by a dry-throated man of Pohjola (52 k). But there is an eternal bridge across the river of Pohjola for a traveller to reach that gloomy place. It is formed by a gigantic oak felled by a little man who emerged from the sea (211 a).

Though this dark, gloomy land of the north is quite mythical and unreal, it was a fact that the farther north a hunter penetrated, the more likely he would be to find game, for there the country was wild and uninhabited. From this point of view Pohjola would naturally be associated with wild animals and regarded much in the same way as Tapiola and Metsola. So a hunter desires that the scent of game may reach the nose of his dog from gloomy Pohjola, from under the window of Tapio (125). Another hunter requests Laaus, the master of Pohjola, to give him a bird to take home, for if so he will be thanked (136 c). Annikki, the daughter of Tapio, is asked to twist a red thread on her rosy cheek and draw it across the stream of Pohjola for wild animals to run along and so reach the hunter (139 n). The open-handed wife of Pohja, Laaus, master of Pohjola, Sinisirkki, maid of Pohja, the son and daughter of Pohja, and others, are desired by a hunter to frighten away the animals sleeping in the forest that they may come in great quantities in his direction (139 s). Raunikko, that regulates the 'money,' Louhi, mistress of Pohjola, is requested to rattle her hand that is full of

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[paragraph continues] 'money' and to send plenty animals to a trapper (153 b), A bear-hunter implores Louhi, mistress of Pohjola, to thrust out her woolly fist, her hairy palm, in front of him (121). If Jokiatar has no otters to give a trapper, she is to get some from Lake Imatra, or from a river of Pohjola (155).

The women of Pohjola have also to do with dogs, especially sporting-dogs. Louhi, mistress of Pohjola, the distinguished Penitar, 'Puppy's daughter,' is desired to remove impediments from her son, i.e. from the hunter's dog (125). Another hunter implores Raani, mistress of Pohjola, to prevent his dog giving tongue at the wrong time (126 a). And the best maiden in Pohjola smeared the teeth of a dog with sweet stuff, and thereby rendered it tame, useful, and not liable to bite (198 a) It was possibly, however, that from bad qualities in a dog its origin is attributed to the old woman Louhiatar, the harlot mistress of Pohjola, having slept with her back to the wind, become pregnant thereby, and eventually giving birth to a pup (198 a). For under the name of Loveatar, the harlot mistress of Pohjola also gave birth to a wolf (222 c). Perhaps from her connection with animals the blind whore of Pohjola, the wholly blind of Ulappala, is invoked to let fall some of her milk on the wound caused by the operation of castration (158 b).

As the north is by nature a cold region, Sharp Frost, after narrowly escaping destruction in the forge of Ilmari the smith, very naturally moved off to Pohjola, to strong Sarentola (93 b). And cold can sometimes be turned to good account. A boy is desired to come from Pohjola, from the cold village, and bring ice with him to cool burns (171 1). The Virgin Mary is requested to go to

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murky Pohjola, to a snowy mountain top, and bring with her ice and snow to apply upon a burn (171 h). Porotyttö, a maid of Pohjola, who had burnt herself, cooled and healed the injury with slush taken from the mouth of a stallion of Pohjola that had on its croup a pool of slush (52 d). The crone of the north, with crooked jaw and scanty teeth, is asked to bring slush and ice to lay upon injuries from fire (171 h). And it was a girl from Pohjola, from the middle of an icy spring, that stood godmother to Fire, as she alone could hold him (226 c).

In other ways, too, assistance was obtainable in Pohjola. A boy from there, with iron knees, is invoked to crush and shoot down the tooth-worm that produces toothache (114 a). The blind old wife of Pohjola, the blind hag of Ulappala, is asked to extract spears and arrows, i.e. pleurisy from a naked skin. Failing her, an old man in the land of the north, who has strong nails and iron teeth, is requested to draw out the spears and arrows and then break them (149 d). A boy from Pohjola, from the real land of Lapps, is invited to poke his fleshy thumb down the barrel of a gun to prevent the bullet being discharged against the petitioner (150). An exorcist, that feels himself weak, asks the help of a boy from Pohjola, of a tall man from Pimentola, to prevent his being overwhelmed with shame when near sorcerers (176 j). Or an old woman is invited to come from Pohjola with a basket containing a dish, in which is a golden feather, to anoint wounds (159 b). Lastly, Louhi, mistress of Pohjola, is implored lay an exorcist to help him (1 c). But in this, as in the examples immediately preceding, it is possible that these helpful personages were invoked for the same reason that Hiisi was sometimes appealed to; because they were strong, and, though of an

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evil disposition, might be appeased and mellowed by suitable offerings.

Pohjola had also a bad aspect, for all sorts of evils could come from it. What is said of Tuonela, 'the home of Death,' in one version, may be told of Pohjola in a variant (216 b). The powerful Louhiatar, mistress of Pohjola, was made pregnant by a violent east wind and gave birth to Boil, Scab, Pleurisy, Gout, Gripes, Fits, Sudden Death, Rickets, a nameless boy, and a daughter Tuuletar (216 a). Raani, the swarthy old wife of Pohja, was got with child by a wind, was confined in an outhouse of Pohjola, and gave birth to Tuuletar, Viimatar, and Pakkanen, 'Sharp Frost' (210 b). The cold-throated old wife of Pohja, after sleeping a long time in the cold, rubbed her hands together so hard that blood was produced, and from it originated rust in corn (217). A furious old crone [v. the strong woman Louhiatar] ate iron groats, pounded by Tuoni's girl, became heavy with child and brought forth a numerous progeny consisting of all sorts of maladies and injuries (216 d). And when the huge Pain-maiden, Äkähätär, whose hair-plait reached to her heels and whose breasts hung down to her knees—like those of a Swedish Skogsnufva, of a Danish sea-woman, or of a Wildfräulein of the Eifel 1—was about to be confined she goes to Pohjola, to a bathhouse in Sariola, where she was delivered of Wind, Fire, Sharp Frost, Snow-fall, Atrophy, Worms, Cancer, Heart-eater, Gout, and Pleurisy (216 c).


Though Lapland is a real country the term is generally used in quite a vague sense as the dark, northern land of

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sorcery and magic, in a pre-eminent degree. And the word Lapp is often only another term for a wizard or sorcerer. Turja also has a place on the map. It is the eastern portion of the Kola Peninsula, the Tarje of the Russian Lapps. In the narrative, recorded by King Alfred of Ohthere's voyage of discovery in the ninth century to the White Sea and the mouth of the Dvina, mention is made of the Ter-Finnas or Lapps of the Tarje district.

From their remote northern situation, Lapland and Turja were both thought of as abounding in game and sometimes as densely wooded. If game is not to be found near at hand, a hunter desires the forest divinities to bring some from Lapland's gloomy wooded wilds, from near Lake Imantra, or from the boundary of the Turja Fells (139 p). The origin of the reindeer is to be found in Lapland, and the old crone of the north is requested to send plenty of game from the north, from Lapland's level tracts, into the traps of a supplicating hunter (148).

More usually help was expected from these countries because their inhabitants were associated in the popular mind with the practice of magic arts. It is related that an old man from Turja, a little man from Pimentola (home of darkness), came with a roll of skin, a skein of sinews, some spare flesh and a ladle of blood, and repaired the injured portions of a wounded man (32 a). A maiden from Turja, from Lapland, sails in a red boat all over icicles and with a kettle full of ice, which she is asked to give to a person that has been burnt or scalded (52 h). An eagle dwells in Turja, in Lapland, with a beak of steel and iron claws; with one wing it grazed the water, with the other the sky; its beak is like five sickles. It is invoked to devour the pain from which a man is suffering

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[paragraph continues] (128 i). An eagle from Turja with five talons like sickles, with eyes at the tips of its wings, is besought to come and extract Keito's spears from the body of a sick man (149 e). Again, in the north-east, in Turja, dwells a famous eagle. Under its wings are a hundred men, at the tip of its tail a thousand men all girt with swords. It is invoked to remove injury caused by spells (154 e). A fiery-throated Lapp, that has drunk up rivers of fire, is invited to come to sip blood and stop a flow of blood. He is to fetch a stopper from the Fells or a nail from Pohjola to serve as a plug; then he is to make a copper or tin pipe and draw back the blood to its proper place, to the lungs and heart (177 i). Only once is Turja connected with violence or outrage; that is when a fiery Tursas, a Lapp, came from Turja and burnt some hay that four celebrated maidens were in process of making (224 a).


Though Kalma may sometimes be taken as a proper name, it signifies 'a grave, the smell of a corpse, a corpse,' and a cemetery or collection of graves is a kalmisto. In the sense of grave the word may belong to the end of the second period, for the Mordvin kalma also means a 'grave,' and there is a verb kalman, 'I bury.' As a proper name, then, Kalma is a mere abstraction or personification of the grave, and therefore of no great antiquity. Tuoni originally meant the 'deceased,' and is the same as the Lapp duodna, 'miserable.' From Tuonela, 'the place of the dead or miserable,' was afterwards formed by analogy a personal name, Tuoni. Mana was also formed by analogy from Manala, 'the place of the dead under ground,' which

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is shortened from maan ala, 'under ground, below the ground.' Lönnrot seems to have been the first to use it in the nominative as a proper name. 1

The abode of Death was under ground, and a river is sometimes mentioned in connection with it. Some chips of an awful oak, felled by a boy from Pohjola, drifted into the black river of Tuoni, into the subterranean waters of Manala (211 c). An old witch rolls fire up into a ball and hurls it along through the earth and soil (manue) into the river of Tuonela, into the depths of Manala (226 b). But a man must not go there without being killed by disease or removed by ordinary death (149 b). The huts of Manala are eternal (5 a).

Disease in general, sometimes toothache in particular, is termed 'Tuoni's hound' (13, 15 a, 21 b), or his 'grub,' or the 'worm of Manala' (21 c). But a snake is also the 'worm of Manala,' or 'Tuoni's grub,' or a 'grub the colour of Tuoni' (29 a), while a real grub or caterpillar is 'Tuoni's rag.' Injuries from spells are 'the bit of death (surma),' 'the chains of Manala,' or 'Tuoni's reins' (154 c). Disease or sickness sometimes comes from the house of the spectral host (kalmalaiset) (5 a), from the armpit of a spectral form (kalmalainen), from Kalma's heath (5 h), or it rushes forth from a grave (kalma) (17 c). A place of burial is 'Kalma's heath (5 b), 'Kalma's sleeping-chambers,' 'the huts of the manalaiset' (17 b). Ukko is invoked to fix Tuoni's lock on the jaws of a bear, or to thrust a stone of Manala down its throat (123 i). When milk had been taken by means of spells from some owner of cows it was said to have gone to Tuonela or to Mana (132 c).

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Although the personifications of death were naturally dreaded as evil beings, they were also invoked to remove harm. Tuoni's short girl is requested to take her cur, the toothache, from a sufferer's jaws, and to press her injuries down into Hiisi's coals (114 b). And Tuoni's girl, the Maid of Pains or Sickness, collected pains with gloved hands and boiled them in a small kettle that no one should receive hurt from them in future (to d). Tuoni's girl Kipu-tyttö, 'the Pain-maiden,' the huge Akähätär, is asked to winnow and sift torments, and to make stones suffer instead of human beings (128 d). An exorcist requests Tuoni's red-cheeked boy to twist a red cord against his left thigh that the petitioner may tie up a severed vein with it. If he is unsuccessful Tuoni's son is to perform the operation for him (140 d). Again Tuoni's son, wearing a red hat, with eyes askew and crooked-jawed, is invited to knock down sorcerers, to shoot them in the belly, to gouge out the eyes of the envious and drag a gory rug over their eyes (176 k). And a son asks his dead mother to rise from the earth, from the cemetery, and to bring him from Tuoni's land a fur coat, which he will put on to protect himself against sorcerers and witches (176 b).

When the origin of anything possessed of evil qualities is related, its parentage, or origin, is sometimes ascribed to the evil spirits of the lower world. The blind daughter of Tuonela, the hideous child of Manala, was made pregnant by a wind, was with child for nine years, and subsequently gave birth to Wolf, Snake, Cancer, Ringworm, Thrush, Cripple, Toothworm, Heart-eater, and Woman's Enemy (216 b). Once when Tuoni's iron-toothed old wife, the crooked-fingered and crumpled-jawed, was spinning,

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some blood spirted from the distaff and turned into a snake (203 f). Iron is capable of doing harm, because when Hölmä came from Tuonela, the son of Manala from under the earth, he found purple melic grass growing on a swamp, and took it to Ilmarinen, who forged it into iron implements (214 f). Probably because nets are deadly to fish the origin of nets is assigned to Tuoni's three-fingered girl, to a three-fingered crone of Lapland, who span a net of one hundred fathoms in a summer's night (230 c). Again, because flax can be turned to bad uses, a huge flax plant is said to have grown up from a flax seed found in the storage place of Tuoni's grub, and sown in the ashes of an incinerated boat (204 a).


The heavenly bodies received some attention from the Finns, and were personified; but there is not much in the Magic Songs to suggest that the sun and moon were held in any special honour, or were regarded as very powerful personalities, though Agricola mentions that the Finns in his time served the sun, moon, and stars. There is a vague reference in the text to a share being offered to the moon, sun, and Great Bear, while nothing is given to the disease called thrush (44). And the sun is asked to rise in proper time, to give gifts, health, success in hunting and fishing (110). This, of course, may be due to losses of traditional material incurred during the lapse of centuries; for there are passages in the songs that seem to be fragments of older nature myths that have otherwise disappeared, but were formerly current. For instance, it is twice mentioned that after the son of the sun (paivä)

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had been enclosed in a rock, in an iron mountain, and the moon shut up in an enclosure, in an iron barn by Kuume, by a Pirulainen, they were released by a woman (kave), by Päivätär (8 d, 42 b). In another passage the release is effected by the daughter of nature (166 d), and it is quoted as a precedent why another release of a different nature—the delivery of a child—should take place. The exorcist in this as in the two other instances must therefore be appealing to a well-known myth, though he has only occasion to refer to a small portion of it. In a much more modern version it is vaguely stated that the Creator formerly freed moons, released suns, and with a curse sent Satan away to hills of steel, to rocks of iron (42 a). None of these passages seem to refer to an eclipse, or to the waning of the moon, for the Finns express that by kuu syödään, 'the moon is being eaten.' And Agricola mentions that 'animals (kapeet) ate the moon,' by which expression one or both of these phenomena must be intended. As Finnish poetical art requires the two lines in each pair to be synonymous, or nearly so, it is quite possible that though two different heavenly bodies are named, only one is intended. It is, therefore, not improbable that the sun alone is referred to, and its relative concealment in winter is the natural phenomenon really hinted at. But when it is related that half the sun and a third of the earth were darkened and concealed by a gigantic oak (211 a), or that the sun and moon were hidden by the growth of a lovely oak (211 b), it is not at all certain that we are in presence of a nature myth. Evidently the same tree is intended in a variant, in which no mention is made of its extreme height, or of its obscuring the heavenly bodies (211 c). So all this may simply be

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due to the lively personal imagination of individual singers, and not be in the least mythical. No more so than in a lyrical Lettish ballad, where a girl says:—'I would not enter a village where oaks grow on the ploughed fields; the oak has thick foliage, you don't see when the sun rises.' 1

In her character of the 'releaser,' Päivätär, the doughty maiden, together with other powers, is invoked by an exorcist to effect deliverance and to release a sufferer from the effects of spell-sent sickness (1 c). As givers of light the sun, moon, and the great bear (otava) are not unnaturally requested to guide a child from the womb into the open air that it may see and rejoice at the sun, moon, and stars (166 h). And Otavatar, the maid of night, the steady watcher during the night, is desired to watch over the petitioner's property, to notice if anything is stolen, and if so to have it returned (175).

Their primitive character is less evident when Kuutar and Päivätär are implored by a hunter to bake a suet cake, a honeyed bannock, with which he may propitiate the forest (139 b). Indeed, the appeal to Kuutar may have been suggested by a play of words, for kuu means both 'moon' and 'suet,' and in offering a suet cake, it would be only a playful figment of the imagination to aver that it was baked by the moon's daughter. Or when a fisherman promises to give Vellamo a linen shirt, woven by Kuutar and spun by Päivätär, as an inducement to her to give him a good haul of fish (120 c). It is less easy to understand why in a charm against wasps the same pair are desired to conceal their children, i.e. wasps, and not to follow the wish of a sorcerer, or be made jealous

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by jealous people (113). Once when Päivätär was bewailing her gold, and Kuutar her silver, a tear trickled from her eyes and rolled into a dell. From it sprang a lovely oak (205 c).

In what appears to be a song of late date, Fire (Panu) is said to be the offspring of the Sun (Auringo), and to have been made in the centre of the sky, on the shoulder (i.e. close to, near) of the Great Bear (226 f). Elsewhere Panu is the son of Aurinkoinen and Auringatar, and lives under forge-fires (172 b). Three or four famous maidens are credited with washing with lie the head of the son of the sun (päivä) (224 a).


There is a class of beings occasionally mentioned in the Magic Songs for whom the Finns seem to have had no special name, but who may be grouped under the comprehensive title of Elves or Brownies. Though they are always pictured as emerging from the sea they do not appear to be water-sprites. The stone boots and hat they sometimes wear belong rather to earth- or stone-elves, and the power of suddenly assuming a gigantic height is a characteristic of the Russian Lieši or forest-spirits, who change their stature according to circumstances. 1 Perhaps the fact that one of them is summoned to fell a gigantic tree, being the only person capable of doing so, points in the same direction.

Once when a huge oak hid the sun and moon from shining and obstructed the course of the stars, a man was sought for from all parts to fell it, but none was to

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be found. At last there emerged from the sea a [v.v. small, black, old, iron] man, a quarter of an ell high, as tall as a woman's span, who could stand under a sieve. His hair reached to his heels, his beard to his knees. He wore a hat, boots, sleeves and a belt, all of them of iron, and he also had an iron axe and shaft. He sharpens his axe for a long time on five or six whetstones. By this time he had become huge; his head touched the clouds and his beard shone like a leafy grove upon a slope. Then in three blows he felled the gigantic oak (211 b). In another version a swarthy or black man rises from the sea, who is as tall as a straightened thumb, three fingers high [v. the height of an ox's hoof]. He carries on his shoulder an ornamented axe with a decorated shaft; on his head he wears a tall stone hat, on his feet stone boots. With three blows of his axe he fells the gigantic oak (211 a). From the sea rose a wee man, scarcely a quarter ell in height and carrying an axe. With it he fells the oak that sprang from a tear shed by Päivätär or Kuutar (205 c). Once a huge ox was bred up in Finland. With its head it roared in Tavastland, it wagged its tail in Tornio. A swallow took a day to fly from its withers to the end of its tail, and in a month a squirrel could not run from one horn to the other. No one could be found to slaughter it, till a swarthy man emerged from the sea, who was but a quarter of an ell high, the height of a woman's span. He overturned and killed the ox, from the carcase of which ointments and salves were obtained (232 g). On the other hand, a small man rose from the sea, only three fingers high, wearing an icy hat and gloves, who knew how to recite 'the ravages of fire,' and by doing so healed burns (52 j).

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The origin of toothache is twice attributed to the Brownie. A black or swarthy (v. iron) man the length of a thumb, rose from the sea; from his beard a worm grew which became a tooth-worm (185 a). A wee man, axe in hand, emerged from the sea. He came across an oak which he felled. In doing so a chip stuck in his teeth and became a tooth-worm (185 f).


Like elves, giants play but a small part in the Magic Songs. Tursas as a proper name is derived by Thomsen from O. N. thurs 'a giant.' But the word has also a meaning in Finnish. According to Lönnrot it signifies 'tumid, swollen'; according to Renvall 'a snout or muzzle,' as that of a horse, an ox, or a pig. In a couple of riddles tursas and turilas are both used with reference to a pig routing up the earth with its snout. 1 In the middle of the sixteenth century Martin uses turillas in the sense of 'a dog that bites animals.' 2

Once upon a time a lovely girl rose from a damp dell, who gave no heed to suitors. So a giant (turilas), a sea-Tursas in shirt-sleeves sent a nightmare upon her, and while she slept ravished her. He then took his departure (215). On another occasion there came from Turja a Lapp, named the fiery Tursas, who burnt the hay that had been cut by three celebrated maidens (224 a). From these two brief references it would seem that giants were destructive rather than stupid, the character they have assumed in later Scandinavian folklore. And the action of the first mentioned is quite in accordance with the

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lustful nature assigned to many half-brutish forest-spirits in European folklore.

The somewhat similar name of Turisas is ascribed by Agricola to a god of the Tavastlanders who gave victory in war.


According to Agricola Rahkoi was a god of the Tavastlanders who darkened the moon, but the Rahko of the Magic Songs seems to be a different person. In a couple of charms against nightmare Rahko, who wears iron boots and makes a 'stony hill revolve,' is desired to put the nightmare under a beam, an iron roof, a tongueless bell (35, 145). Almost in the same terms he is mentioned in two riddles, but in a way that throws little light upon the subject. 'Rahko in iron boots makes a stony hill revolve, it bows to the rapids?' Ans. 'A mill-wheel, a mill-sail.' Or 'Iron-booted Rahko hurries over a stony hill, he treads on a gravelly one?' Ans. 'A, plough—a poker.' 1 The 'stony hill' of the text seems to mean a mill-stone, and the exorcist probably wishes Rahko to put the nightmare under the stone of his mill which is termed a tongueless 'bell' from the clatter it makes. As rahk means 'gravel, hard limestone' in Esthonian, it seems likely that Rahko was a stone-haltia.


Perkele < Perkene is from the Lith. Perkunas, 'the god of thunder,' and Piru from the Russ. Perùn 'a thunderbolt,

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lightning,' but formerly 'the thunder-god.' The Mordvins at an early period have also borrowed the word under the form Purgene, and use it in its old sense. But in the Magic Songs Perkele, Piru only signifies an evil spirit and answers more particularly to the biblical and modern devil. There is not the slightest trace of the older meaning; and in estimating the approximate period to which the Magic Songs in the main belong, this complete change of front cannot be overlooked. It may also be observed that the Letts have retained the old tradition of Pērkons and still regard him as beneficent, though capable of doing harm when asked to do so. A couple of stanzas of a modern Lettish ballad run thus:—

Thundering gently, gently,
Pērkons crosses the sea,
He hurts not the bloom of the bird cherry tree
Nor the work of the husbandman.
  O Pērkons, rumble and thunder,
Split the bridge o'er the Daugava,
That no Poles or Lithuanians
Shall enter my fatherland. 1
Perkele, often coupled with Piru, Hiisi or Juutas, is a name given to the fearful spirit of disease that an exorcist is summoned to combat and exorcise (1 a, 5 b, 13, 17 m, 154 d). In a charm to silence a dog, Perkele is invoked to do so (126). In a variant Hiisi is invited to rise from Hell, Perkele from Pimentola to crush or devour the violent pain a wretched man is suffering (128 h). Here he is desired to perform a benevolent action, perhaps from the old feeling that seems to have prevailed among the Finns that no spirit was by nature entirely good or entirely

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bad even though bad on the whole. But Tuoni's girl is invoked to fling toothache into an iron baking-pan or at the end of Piru's tongs or among Hiisi's coals (114 b). And in the 'origins' Piru is regarded as a source of evil. Piru made arrows in a steel mountain, in a smithy without a door and windowless. He made the heads of steel, the shafts of oak, and plumed them with swallow's plumes bound on with locks of Hiisi's girl, and poisoned with the venom of a snake. He then shot his arrows and the third recoiled against a steel mountain and entered a human being (211 a). The alder buckthorn was made from the hair of a Pirulainen's beard and the rowan is the creation of Piru (212 i).


We have already seen in Chapter iv. that the term 'god,' F. Jumala, originally meant the 'sky, the sky-spirit,' and that in course of time it came to mean 'god' in a general sense, applicable to a variety of deities. Thus Ahti is termed a god (93 b). Hiisi is the humpback from the home of gods (1 c). An exorcist exclaims: 'may help from the gods arrive, from the nourishing mother aid' (102 a). In a charm to be used when heating a vapour-bath it is said that the gods above and the earth-mothers down below use hot baths (87 a). The Virgin Mary is implored to restore health before the rising of the sun, the dawning of the god of dawn (169 a). And the lord of horses, Tahvanus [v.v. Timanter, Rukotiivo] is called a god that cleans out mangers (115 b).

As a rule, however, the word god, especially when qualified by the terms Creator, Almighty, seems to refer to the

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[paragraph continues] Christian God. Whenever this is so the exorcism is not older than the middle of the twelfth century, unless the term is a substitution for an older heathen name, as undoubtedly is sometimes the case. A fragment of some lost legend appears to be preserved in a charm against hæmorrhage where it says: when countries were upheaved, when hard dry land was lifted up from beneath the sea, our great Creator then made an incision in his flesh, in his left foot (55 f). This perhaps includes a reminiscence of Väinämöinen who cut his left knee when making a boat and who also was said to have taken part in the creation of the world. When a hunter exclaims: 'Why is the great Creator wroth, the giver of game enraged, that he never gives at all' (89 c), he is probably thinking of Tapio, though the name of the forest god is replaced by that of the Creator. Or, when another hunter beseeches dearest God, the ruler of the earth, to give him abundance of wild animals, mentioning at the same time that he does not prostrate himself merely to be given stumps of trees; he must have animals (139 m). Again, when God the Creator is invoked to watch over a herd at pasture (123 d), it is quite possible that new names have been worked into an older incantation.

Some of the songs in which the name of God is employed appear to belong to the transition period between heathendom and Christianity. For His name is invoked in a way that clearly shows the exorcist was no professional theologian. The aerial God, the spirit Lord Jesus, is desired to harness his colt, to take a seat in his ornamented sleigh, and drive through bones and loosened veins in order to join them together, and where a bone was broken to fasten in another (140 a). God the father,

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[paragraph continues] Jesus the Lord of air, that knows how to throw a bullet and to recite a charm for stopping bullets, is invited to let water fall on the touch-hole of an enemy's gun so that it will not flash and go off (150). God the Creator is desired to recite a charm to heal a sick man, and to assuage his pain with formulas that are holy and well arranged (157 d). In a charm for making a healing vapour- bath, God, the father of the air, is asked to enter the steam, to restore health to the sick person and give him repose. But he is to do it secretly, without being heard by a worthless wretch, and without the knowledge of the village people (169 c). God the Creator is prayed to give luck and contentment. He is to build round the supplicant's property an iron fence, a stone castle, reaching from the earth to the sky (143). God is called the oldest of spell-reciters, and the Creator the oldest of wizards (106). The Creator is desired to come and exorcise, God to come and speak, and aid a man in overthrowing his enemies and envious persons (176 d). And the Creator's cock with golden wattles is implored to come and speak on a man's behalf, but it is also to stop the judge's ears, to bribe the jurymen, and bind silk across the sheriff's eyes (124). Why the Creator has a cock with golden wattles is explained perhaps by a riddle. 'One cock is an iron cock, the second a copper cock, the third a golden cock. The iron cock split the ground, the copper cock cut the sea, the golden one divided the sky?' Answer—'A plough, a ship, the sun.' 1 Though it may be a reminiscence of the thunder-bird, as mentioned above.

At a later period in order to staunch blood an exorcist could say: 'May the word of God become a bar, may

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trust in the Maker be a plug. If blood should flow in rapid drops, may the Creator hold it fast, may God seize hold of it (55 e). But when he continues: 'Let some of kindly Jesus’ flesh, a bit from the side of the Lord be a plug for the fearful hole, a dam for the evil gap,' he is only adapting an older heathen formula to the new terminology. So, too, when the Lord is asked to fling his gloves down as a stopper on the fearful hole from which 'the milk' is flowing, the idea was not a new one. But the end of the charm certainly belongs to the new faith. 'May the Maker's lock be a lock, may the Lord's word be a bar, that the "milk" to the ground shan't flow nor the guiltless blood upon the dirt, despite the nature of God, against the intention of the Blest' (177 f). An exorcist declares he can do nothing without the grace and help of God the Creator (1 a, 42 b). He throws himself on his God, who abandons not the good and virtuous (5 a). He declares that the arrows of a sorcerer can be extracted by virtue of the word of God, by the spirit of the Lord's decree (37 c). The breath that he exhales is the breath of the Lord, the warmth that he emits is that of the Creator, the water he employs is the blood of Jesus (102 a). And he asks, Is a man to be put to death without God's mercy, without the true Creator's leave? (42 a). A diviner begins: 'I crave from the Creator leave, assistance from the Lord I beg. Tell the divining gear, O God. Divining gear! declare to me whence the calamity has come' (59 a). And he finishes: 'If the divining gear speaks truth, its reputation is enhanced, the divining gear is raised aloft to the knees of the holy God' (59 b). A charm to quiet a child begins: 'Lull the child to sleep, O God, cause it to slumber, Mary dear' (79). On going to bed one may repeat a lorica like

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the following: 'May the Earth be a good defence, the Omnipotent a guard, may the Creator lock the door, may a saint draw to the bolt, may Jesus be a shield, Mary a sword' (137). In preparing a bandage an exorcist says: 'Let the Maker's silk be a ligature, the cloak of the Lord be a covering, let the word of God be a bolt, the furs of the Lord be a coverlet; may the Creator's mercy grant, may God's word bring about that the wound shall not inflame' (159 a). The Creator, Nature, God that dwells above, is invoked to save a person from incantations and spells by means of words framed by the Creator prescribed by the Holy Ghost (165 a). Fire is said to have been created by God, to be born of Jesus’ word and rocked by the Virgin Mary (226 c). And as salves are said to be prepared behind the stars, they are desired to trickle down from the mouth of the gracious God or from the beard of the Blessed One (232 c).


The names of Christ and of Jesus are often mentioned, but never together. Jesus is desired to consecrate the flocks and watch the herds of the petitioner when they are sent out to graze (123 b). Christ is said to have christened Tapio's son, Pinneys, in the middle of the forest field to tend the animals of the forest (139 r). Jesus is asked to send a good barley year that the people of Bothnia and Savolax may have plenty of good ale to drink (182). Jesus is invoked to wash a small child clean with water made by the Creator and ordained by the 'Holy Birth,' a term used in Karelia for Christ (168). Or he is to wash a girl clean from the harm caused by evil gossip and bad

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reports (133 a, b). The water an exorcist uses for healing purposes is feigned to be taken from Jordan, in which Christ was baptized (106, 228 c). Or it is the washing water of Jesus, the tears of the Son of God, brought from Jordan by the Virgin Mary (228 d). A maiden from a spring is requested to bring serviceable water from Jordan, in which Christ was baptized (179). An exorcist declares that he uses the guiltless blood of Jesus, the sweet milk of Mary, which had come rippling down from the sky, as an ointment for wounds (109 a). As lord of the air, the God that dwells in the sky, Jesus is desired to come and see his son who is sick, and to spit some of his spittle on him as an ointment and thus to restore him to health (157 e). Jesus is besought to take anxious care of a child created by himself, to build a wall of stone, an iron enclosure, behind which a soldier can shelter himself against the weapons of an enemy (162 d). He is implored to help a man in danger, who addresses him: 'Lord Jesus, do not cast me off, do not abandon me, good God, to the magic spells of whores,' but 'bring him a fiery sword with which he will slash the wicked men and crush the foul persons at a blow' (176 c). Once when Jesus was travelling over a red sea in a red sloop with red sails, a red ointment trickled from the sails and yards and formed the best of salves for every kind of injury (109 b). Jesus and Mary are asked to taste and see whether certain salves are the magic remedies of the Almighty with which the Creator was salved, the Omnipotent was healed when pierced and tortured by a devil (181 i). Once when Jesus and Mary were driving to church the horse fell and sprained its leg, which was healed by Jesus (34 a). A cow-house snake bit Christ's horse, killed the foal of the

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[paragraph continues] Almighty, through the bony floor of the stall (205 e). If a snake will not remove its venom from a bite, an exorcist will loudly shout to his father, to Jesus, and to his mother Mary (29 d). Once when Jesus was walking along a road with Peter he encountered a Cancer. He asked the Cancer where it was going, and on learning that it was bent on visiting a village to bewitch people's bones and make their flesh putrify, he ordered it under a thick flat stone, to shriek and yell where the sun and moon never shine (39 b).

The ordinary epithets of the Virgin Mary are the dear mother, the compassionate, or the holy handmaid of the sky, the holy little serving-maid. In some instances she merely replaces the Air, Spring, or other maidens of an older period. The Virgin Mary, the pure mother, beautiful of shape, wandering along the edge of the air with a skein of veins on her back, a can of blood under her arm, a longish piece of bone in her hand, and a lump of flesh on her shoulder, came and spliced a vein, poured in blood where some had leaked, fastened a bone that was loose, and added flesh where a bit had been removed (32 b). The Virgin Mary, the holy little serving-maid, sits on the surface of the sea, wearing a golden ring on which are six horns full of magic cures, with which she once salved the Creator and healed the best of Lords (109 d). Once the dear mother, the Virgin Mary, threw herself down to sleep on a turfy knoll. Milk exuded from her breasts, and became an ointment good to apply upon a wound (109 c). As the dear mother she is invoked to bring a golden cup and a honeyed wing, and then to prepare a healing vapour-bath (169 b). As the holy handmaid of the sky, she is asked to weave a gold or silver belt to serve as a bandage (159 a). As the kind, compassionate mother, she is desired

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to go to gloomy Pohjola to fetch snow with which to quench fire (172 a). As the compassionate mother, or as the holy little serving-maid, she is asked to stop a flow of blood with her thumb, or with turf, or with a handful of flax, or with a slice of birch-bark, and then to sew up the wound with a needle and silk thread (177 a, b, c). The beloved and merciful mother, the Virgin Mary, is implored to come in her fleet shoes to seize pains, to remove plagues, etc.; then to throw them into the sea or to the wind (128 f). As the dear, compassionate mother, she is requested to give a soft fur coat as e. protection against bitter cold, and to throw fire into the socks and tatters of the suppliant so that he may not be nipt by the frost. The frost-bites she is to anoint with butter and fat (147 b). As the eternal mother of the earth, the benefactor of all time, she is to let water pour from a rock by means of her golden staff and wash a girl in it in order to remove the effects of spells and to make her irresistibly attractive to young men (133 d). The Virgin Mary, the dear mother, is desired to heal a sufferer by virtue of the word of God, through the mercy always of the Lord (169 a). She is invoked too to bring honey and water from the sky, or to take milk from her breasts and anoint a sick man; if that is insufficient, she is to anoint him with the blood of Jesus (181 a). Or she is to use the salves with which Jesus was salved, with which the Omnipotent was healed when tortured by Pilate (181 b). An operator beseeches the beloved and compassionate mother to let her skilful fingers be transformed into his, that he may snatch a bit of chaff out of a person's eye (160 a). Or she is to take from her golden box a golden hook, and with it fish out the chaff that irritates a man's eye (160 b). To get rid of an attack of gout it is

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addressed with flattering words: 'Good Gout, thou lovely Gout, Mary's sweet Gout, depart!' (30). Before going to bed one may repeat at the end of other formulas: 'May Mary lull to sleep, may Jesus raise me up to thank my God, to give Jesus praise' (137). Dear Mary and good Peter are implored to give a man a small plot of ground gratis, on which he may build a new house (167). After gelding a horse the operator gives it water, and says: 'Now of this water drink, of Mary's washing-water sip' (96).


In an ale-charm it is related that a little boat was being rowed on a little pond in a drop of water in a cloud. St. Andrew (Antti) pulled, little Peter steered, and Jesus sat in the middle. There they were occupied in combing Hiisi's elks, and the housewife reciting the charm invokes these animals to drive away the snakes that are drinking her ale (91). Christopher, the river chief, the golden king of rivers, together with Nokiatar [v. Jokiatar] is desired to send a whole host of otters into the traps of a trapper (133). St. Anni, the gracious maid, the beauteous maiden of the veins, span a red thread and bound it round the sprained or dislocated limb of man or beast (34 d). The dear mother St. Catharine is asked to come in her best attire and see the harm her creature, the ram, has done by butting some unfortunate fellow (141). Expert St. Stephen (Tapani) or Tahvanus, lord of horses, a god that cleans out mangers, is desired to watch carefully over horses sent out to grass (115 a, b). As the father and mother of a boy that has been gored by an ox, St. Säitäri

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and the lovely Pullukka are invoked to take care that the lad does not die of the injury before his time (116).

Besides these references to saints there are allusions to biblical subjects and persons as well as to ecclesiastic ceremonies, which it is well to record. Man is made of a cake of mould to which the Lord gave breath and life (191.) Kalma is asked if he is of the stock of Adam and Eve (24). The Creator cursed the snake to crawl on its belly along the ground (29 a). He cursed Satan and made him enter hills of steel, rocks of iron (42 a). There is a vague mention of the temple of the Lord (102 a), and to stand still like the wall of Jerusalem, is used as a simile to express the utmost immobility (61). A hunter declares that he does not praise a stone or worship a boulder-stone, or hunt on holy days or exert himself on Sabbath days (89 d). Juhannes, the priest of God, concocted unguents for a year in a tiny kettle, and with them he stroked and healed the wound of the Lord while being tortured by Pilate (109 e). The same priest of God plucked herbs by the thousand, boiled them all summer and thus made useful salves (232 b). An old man in riding to church on an elk-like horse as fat as a seal, crosses the brook Kedron (34 b). A stone is described as being as high as a church (28 b, 99). In expelling an evil spirit, an exorcist says: 'now is the precious time of grace, the solemn festival of God, the priests are going to the Mass, proceeding to the preaching-house' (8 c). Another exorcist asks the evil spirit of disease if it has been torn from the base of a cross, has been conjured up from women's graves (5 b).

To an evil spirit an exorciser exclaims: 'If thou should injure a Christian man, destroy a man that is baptized, christening perhance will injure thee, thee will a baptism

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destroy' (16 b). And he banishes another spirit to priest-less places, to unchristian lands 07 w). He tells an evil spirit of disease to cease injuring a Christian man, destroying one that is baptized (22, 36 b, 39 a). Ukko is asked to let rain fall in Russia, in Karelia, where a woman has a child of two months, that has not been baptized for want of water (156). The bear was christened by the king of Himmerkki (i.e. the kingdom of heaven) himself, while the Virgin Mary not only carried him to baptism, but also stood godmother (193 a). Juhannes, the priest of God, the holy knight, was desired by Louhiatar to christen her children, but as he absolutely declined to do so, she profanely did it herself (210 a). But it was Juhannes, the best of priests that christened Fire and gave him the name of Panu (226 c). Raani, the old wife of Pohjola, asked God the Creator to baptize and name her children, but as he never came, she, too, did it herself (210 b). Tuoni's girl also baptized her children as the two priests and the sacristans, whom she had asked to perform the ceremony, firmly declined the invitation (216 b). After searching in ten villages, the mother of Rickets, being unable to find any one to baptize him does it herself on a water-girt stone, but in filthy water (215). Sharp Frost was christened by his mother at a bubbling stream in the centre of a golden cliff (219 a). Or, according to another version in a silver stream, in a golden spring (210 c).


There is so little to be learned from the text about Kaleva, that we may suppose either that the tradition about him was dying out, or that his importance has been

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exaggerated. In the last century, he is described by Lencqvist as a giant, the father of twelve sons, all the names of whom were not remembered, though Hiisi, Soini, Väinämöinen and Ilmarinen were among the number. Their great height, according to popular imagination, is the notion that underlies a couple of riddles. 'Two sons of Kaleva reside in the bath-house, their heads are washed in the yard.' 'The sons of Kaleva are in the bath-house, their heads are washed in the yard.' Ans. 'The rafters of the roof,' the projecting ends of which are well soused by falling rain. 1

In the middle of the sixteenth century, Agricola regarded the sons of Kaleva as benevolent divinities of the Tavastlanders, who mowed meadows and suchlike. In this they resemble the Selige Fräulein of the Tyrol who mow grass and cut corn for upland farmers and are comparable with the gigantic Fanggen or Wild Women of the Tyrol, who are willing to enter man's service and to perform work for him. 2 An anonymous author who wrote in 1778 tells us 'the good Kaleva covered fields with verdant grass and filled the barns of country people with new hay.' And sheet-lightning, which in folk-belief is often considered beneficial to growing corn, is termed in the south of Finland 'the sword of Kaleva.' He seems, therefore, in one aspect at least to have favoured the growth of vegetation, before helping to cut it down. Several passages in the Magic Songs, in which he is coupled, and therefore more or less identified with Osmo, favour this view. Hops were planted at the side of Kaleva's well, on the headland of Osmo's field and grew flourishingly. An old man sowed Osmo's barley in Osmo's new field and splendidly it grew

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in Osmo's new field, in the clearing of Kaleva's son (209 a). The origin of bent-grass is said to be from a pearl that fell from the Lord, from Jesus’ hand, on the edge of Osmo's field, on Pellervoinen's unploughed edge (220). Osmotar is described as the brewer of ale, who took barley, hops and water, and began making beer. In the course of the narrative she is aided by Kalevatar (209 a). On the other hand, when Jesus and Mary were driving to church, they crossed the heath of Kaleva, the unploughed edge of Osmo's field (34 a). In the parish of Ilamants in Finnish Karelia a 'field of Kaleva' (Kalevan pelto) means a place where nothing grows.

In the text, the sons of Kaleva are Väinämöinen [v. Kullervo] in his capacity of a warrior, and Suoviitta (Swamp-cloak). In giving the origin of water, it is said that Vesiviitta (Water-cloak) the son of Vaitta, (or) Suoviitta, the son of Kaleva, dug water from a rock, let water gush from a mountain, with a golden staff (228 a). In a variant, that Vesiviitto, son of Väitö, (or) the offspring of Sinervätär [v. Suoviitta, son of Kaleva], slept a while in a mountain, grew for a long time in a rock while bringing forth water, though at last it spirted forth to be the death of fire (228 b). In a charm to quench fire Vesiviitta, the son of a mountain, the lovely offspring of a rock [v. Suoviitta, the son of Kaleva], that has slept for a year in the mountain, is asked to tether himself to the glowing ash and to cast himself down on Fire, so as to render him powerless for doing harm (171 m). In the last example Kaleva is coupled with God. Iron swears his solemn oath in the presence of the well-known God on the shoe of Kaleva, not to harm his brother (40 c).

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The Finns possess a considerable number of words and epithets for wizard, sorcerer, witch, seer, ecstatic and the like. Some of these are native words like noita 'a sorcerer,' tieto-mies or tietäjä 'the knower,' loitsija 'the reciter of a magic song (loitsu), arpoja 'a diviner,' näkijä 'a seer,' myrrys-mies or into-mies 'an ecstatic,' lumoja 'a stupefier,' lukija 'a reciter,' katselija 'an observer,' laulu-mies 'a song-man,' ampuja 'an archer,' kukkaro-mies a bag-man.' Others are of foreign origin like mahti-mies or mahtaja < Goth. mahts or Sw. magt 'might,' taikuri 'he that uses taika '< Goth. taikns 'a token, a wonder,' velho 'a witch,' is probably an early Slav loan, while a latter one is poppa-mies 'priest-man' from the Rus. pop. Though between these appellations no hard and fast line can be drawn, dividing them into good and bad categories, yet on the whole, injurious or black magic would generally be the work of the noita, the ampuja, the velho, and the kukkaro-mies. Beneficial or white magic, like the great bulk of the Magic Songs, was used for ejecting evil spirits of disease, etc., and would be practised by a loitsija, a tietäjä, a lukija, or a laulu-mies; in some instances by a lumoja, näkijä or an arpoja. Yet we have an example of an exorcist terming himself a noita and a Lapp (12 b). As a rule there is nothing in a Magic Song to show what sort of wizard the reciter of it might be; so as his function is to drive away disease, I shall term him the exorcist.

The sorcerer (noita), the fortune-teller (arpoja), is said to have been born behind the limits of the north, on the flat land of the Lapps, on a bed of fir boughs, on a pillow of stone (207). The sorcerer has a nose like an eagle's

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beak (2 d) and wears a tall hat (14 c, e), as the Lapps do still. Sorcerers, when they exercise their arts, are naked and without a stitch of clothes (14 b). They are said to drink water from a pool in the croup of Hiisi's horse, and in drinking to make it hiss (9 b, 14 h). The offensive weapons of the sorcerer, the wizard (tietäjä) and the 'archer,' are knives of iron, pointed iron and shooting instruments (2 a, b, 14 c, 37 a, b). Sorcerers and wizards use arrows, and witches (velho) have knives of steel (176 o). But these expressions are not usually to be understood literally; they imply sickness, disease, or any injury caused by the spells of a sorcerer at the instigation of some jealous neighbour; though, sometimes, a sorcerer no doubt would drive a knife or a nail into the footprint of an enemy to do him harm, and there is a vague allusion to roasting and melting an image (46), into which pins or nails would first be stuck. The arrows of a sorcerer are said to be made of the wood of a tall fir growing on the Hill of Pain, and he is quite indifferent where he shoots them (208 a). Or they were made from chips of a huge oak that were taken to a smithy by a scoundrel, who made the arrows to be stitch and pleurisy in men, sudden sickness in a horse and elf-shots (F. jagged spikes) in kine (211 a). Or from the chips of a fiery oak they were made into arrows by Hiisi's son (211 b). Wizards, sorcerers, witches, and diviners, are to be found at every gate, at every fence, along every road, in damp dells, near water, and in fact everywhere (2 c, d).

A cursing spell may be repeated in a whining or a mumbling voice and is said to be bitten off with the teeth (46), just as one might bite off a length of thread from a clew held in the mouth. Words, i.e. spells or

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[paragraph continues] Magic Songs, are brought from the north, from Lapland (28 a).

An exorcist requires a fluent mouth, a ready tongue and pliant fingers (1 a). In order to make him into a wizard, a skilful man and a singer, an exorcist was washed naked three times one summer night on the nether stone of a handmill by his mother (14 e), probably to harden and strengthen him, the stone itself being hard and strong. Another boasts that he is the son of a Northerner (Pohjolainen), was rocked by a girl of Turja, and was cradled by a Lapp (14 f). The vaunt of another is that he is the youngest son of a sorcerer, the 'calf' of an old diviner (14 d). He can repeat a spell learnt from his father to obtain a favourable wind (107 a). He depends on his father's strength of mind and armaments (12 b, 14 b). But he also inherits power from his mother. An exorcist's mother could bring back stolen milk from Mana, from Tuonela, from sorcerers, etc., and what she did he can do likewise (88 c). Another brags that Sharp Frost has no effect on him or on any of his family and kin. In fact he kills Frost and takes from it clothing with which to protect himself (93 d).. If he has need of Magic Songs he will go and learn them from the old wife of Pohjola and also how to use an eagle's claws (28 a). At a later date an exorcist wishes the Creator, whose words and phrases are holy and well-arranged, to speak for him (157 d). And God is asked to save a person from the effect of village spells and incantations with words framed by the Creator and prescribed by the Holy Ghost (165 a). By his song an exorcist boasts he can split the shoulders of a witch or of a sorcerer, by his lay can bisect his jawbone and feed him on snakes and toads (14 a). By singing

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he can bring a pigskin over the eyes of sorcerers and a dogskin over their ears (14 c). By means of his song he turns the best singers into the worst and puts strong gloves and shoes on their hands and feet (14 e), meaning that they are now bound and helpless. He sings sorcerers, wizards, witches and 'archers' with their 'knives, arrows, etc.' into the mighty Rutja or Turja Rapids (14 c). By the power of his song a wolf is bitted or a bear is chained (16 b). He boasts that he can milk adders, handle snakes, can arm one thousand men in one night, can bit wolves and shackle bears (14 f). As a comrade he has one of Hiisis's people, who is of great strength and will give him hardness of body (14 i). Elsewhere he brags that he has a sandy skin, a hide of iron slag, a body made of steel, or one taken from the branches of a fir (14 c). In fact, from his possessing a sandy skin, an iron-coloured hide, it is useless for a wasp to try to sting him (79 a). One exorcist describes how skilful he is at surgical operations (31); another vaunts that he is a man without his like and a famous son (176 v).

But the exorcist is not always in a boasting mood, and does not rely solely upon bounce. Sometimes he is far from being over-confident (1 a, 38 a). In his diffidence he refers to himself as an unfortunate lad, as a poor boy, (28 a). He lays great stress on the difficulty of the task of ejecting evil spirits of disease (1 a, b, d, 3 a, 15 a, 65, 75). He asks how he is to proceed (1 a, 13, 15 a, 37 c etc.), how he is to protect himself (2 a). He pleads complete ignorance of the cause of an illness or accident (5 a, 6, c, 23). And if he is not afraid it is because he has put on a shirt of defence (2 c) or something of the sort (12 b, 14 6). In the latest period he can do nothing

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without the grace and aid of God the true Creator. Or he speaks with the Lord's good breath and washes the sick man with the blood and tears of Jesus (101). He acts with the Creator's leave and by the mercy of the Lord (1 a, 42 b).


The disease an exorcist has to drive away is either sent by God the Creator—an idea evidently of late date—or is caused by the spells of a sorcerer for reward (5 a), which is undoubtedly the older belief. When an illness is effected by the spells of an enemy it is said to be the result of human art (17 g, h, j, k) and is thus distinguished from a natural malady. Disease in general is pictured as a huge and hideous devil (1 a) or as a bogie, rienä (1 c). It is termed a Hiisi, a devil (5 b, 8 b, 13, 15 a), a filthy Lempo (5 c), an uninvited shape, muoto (8 c), a hound of Hiisi, a monster of the earth (8 d). An exorcist is quite astonished that a mouthless, eyeless, toothless, tongueless creature like Rickets can see to suck or to eat (41).

Sometimes an illness may have been ordered to attack a man by its father, mother, brothers or sisters (11). On the other hand it is invited to approach and recognise the evil it has done, on pain of a report being made to its mother, who would be greatly vexed thereby (6 a). For, after seeing the harm it has wrought, it is capable of feeling ashamed (6 b, 8 d), and of repairing and making amends for it (6 b, 36 a). An exorcist may even treat it as he would a boy and threaten to flog it with rowan shoots and tips of fir (16 a). The person who sends an illness or disease by means of spells is called its master or

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mistress, and so the malady may be told to go home and break the head of its master or mistress (17 g). Or to injure in some terrible way the individual that sent it, such as by 'giving her veins a sudden squeeze, making her blood-pipes pipe a tune' (17 h). A sickness may also come from a grave or from the spirits of the departed (17 b, c). From this may be inferred that the Finns sacrificed to the manes of their ancestors, who were occasionally dissatisfied and then avenged themselves by sending disease etc., on their descendants. Ailments are also brought by wind and water (17 v). Once upon a time three attacks of sickness came along a swamp, along firm ground and by water. The first had a neck like a pole, the second a neck like an arch, the third was the worst attack, but is not further described (14 h). Or three attacks of sickness came along a swamp, along a winter- road and along springs of water, but on this occasion the worst had come along the swamp (20 b).

Though pain, disease and sickness of any kind were generally thought of as evil spirits with human propensities, yet they can be wound up into a ball and thrown into the sea (10 a). An exorcist puts them into his wallet and takes them to three Luonnotars who collect them in a copper box (10 b). And Kivutar, the maid of pains and sicknesses, boils these in a little kettle on the top of the Hill of Pain (10 c, d).

Inducements to depart.

When an exorcist did not feel quite strong enough to drive away a disease by force he sometimes parleyed with it, tried the arts of persuasion and offered a substantial inducement to it to retire to some other place. If it will

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only go he will provide it with a splendid horse (9 a, b) and he urges that the road is good and there is moonlight to travel by (8 b). But as it was regarded as a ravenous, flesh-eating monster an appeal is generally made to its grosser appetites. It is invited to go to a cemetery where there is plenty bread of sifted flour, plenty elbows and much fat flesh (17 c); to Pohjola, where there is a sea beach to scamper along, both cooked and raw flesh, the boneless meat of an elk, a fat ox or of a reindeer already slaughtered and only waiting to be eaten (17 m); to the North, as blazes have been cut on the trees making it easy to find the way, and once there it will find a good bed, plenty to eat and drink, boneless flesh, blood to drink, elk, reindeer, and bear's meat and to crown all a pig stye to sleep in (17 n); to battlefields, where it is easy to visit relatives, to eat raw flesh and drink warm blood in abundance (17 o); in front of a cannon, where there is blood to drink and flesh to eat, that never grows less (17 p); to the sea, to be gently swayed by it, where there is plenty fish and roast meat for a hungry fellow to eat (17 y). To Metsola, to the stone heap of a bear, to eat a bear or a horse (27 b). To Lapland, where it is nice and cold and where it can eat reindeer meat without trouble (36 b). To go home, where a bitch has littered two pups, the heart's core of which Colic is welcome to devour (58). To Hell, where a horse has died, the foot of which Small-Pox can bite (27 b). To Metsola where there is a butter bed, a milky sleeping-place, a bacony resting-place and a soft pillow (17 l).

Occasionally an appeal is made to the finer feelings. A disease ought to go home because his family is alarmed and vexed at his absence and his son is lying sick (17 i):

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[paragraph continues] Or a Pain ought to go into the sea where all his relatives, his brothers and sisters, his nephews and nieces reside (45 a). If there is any vanity in him, he may go to the stars 'to flame like a fire, to sparkle like a spark' (17 q).

The principle of offering an inducement to pursue a certain line of action is extended by exorcists or other reciters of Magic Songs to birds and animals as well as to spirits of disease. A raven, instead of injuring snares, is advised to fly to Pohjola, to Lapland, where there is elk meat and boneless flesh for a hungry fellow to devour (94). Instead of attacking cows, a bear is advised to mature his claws and strengthen the muscle of his forearm by shaking a rotten tree, by throwing down trees and twisting bushes (69 c). Or he should retire into the forest where there is always a bed ready for a bear (69 d). An ermine is recommended to enter a trap because the bait is made with cunning skill, tastes salty and is honey to the mind (73). A game bird should not fly away at the sight of a hunter's snares or it will certainly be killed by a hawk (83 a). A cabbage grub is advised to go into the sea where there is plenty sea-sand and water to eat and drink (66 b). A bug ought to withdraw into the crevices of a wail where there is plenty of fat, instead of biting the tarry back of a man (85). An attempt is even made to persuade Ukko, the god of the sky, to send rain to some other place on the ground that a mother is there with a child of two months old that has seen no water and is still unbaptized (156).

Places whither Diseases are conjured.

The exorcist conjured the spirits of disease to all sorts of localities, and at times gave the reins to his fancy in imagining

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out-of-the-way places. And once there they cannot escape unless the exorcist comes himself to set them free (18 a, b), a most unlikely event. He banishes them to their own country (9 a, 17 g, h); to Metsola (17 l); to deep gloomy forests whence no man returns (50); to the north (17 n, 36 a); to a snowy mountain peak (17 s); to the Hill of Pain (9 b); to the top of a copper hill, into the rift in an iron mountain (17 r); below the earth, under a copper mountain (x. b); to Manala's eternal huts (43); to Sariola, to unploughed land, to a nameless meadow (17 a); to damp dells and swamps (17 a, t); to the sky (17 q, 36 b); into a variegated stone (17 u); into stones that feel no pain, to swamps, deserted clearings, into moving gravel and sand (17 t); to priestless places, to unchristened lands (17 w); into the hole of an ermine (17 a); into a nine-fathom deep hole in a stone lying in a spring in, a field (10 c); to the middle of the open sea (10 a); into the violent rapids of Ihari, Kalari, Vuoksi, Turja or Rutja (17 d, e, f, 43); down the mouth of Antero Vipunen (17 a); into the sleigh of a brindled cat, the cart of a black cock to be carried to gaol, or into the sleigh of a fox to be carried into the water (17 a); into the skin of a kindly seal to be carried out to sea (17 u); into the eye of a blue gwyniad, to the tail of a red salmon or into the mouth of an iron burbot (17 x); into the mouth of an iron stallion, of a wolf or a crow, under the tongue of a reindeer or under the tail of a black dog (17 a); to fiery rapids, to a holy stream, where there is a reef on which stands a bull with a burning mouth that will carry the disease to Tuonela (17 d); or into an apple or an oak tree (129 h), as is common enough in European folklore.

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The belief in the power of magic song was great, but it did not preclude the use of instruments, either real or imaginary. If the voice of an exorcist is not strong enough, he takes a horn or a pipe and blows on it towards the sky in order to be better heard (1 d). He thrusts his herding-horn towards the sky and brings down milk from there (88 c). In order to claw Disease, the hideous thing, he uses the claws of a bear or of an eagle (14 h, 16 a, 20 b, 28 a), or the hands of a dead man (13 b, 16 a). To extract the 'arrows of a sorcerer' or 'Tuoni's grub,' he employs little tongs or pincers made expressly by a smith (15 6, 21 c, 37 a). He asks Ukko to drop into his hand pincers, the points and shafts of which are made of snakes, that he may draw out the 'arrows' and 'bloody needles' of a sorcerer (149 a). Smith Ilmarinen is desired to make tiny tongs and pincers for him that he may extract Lempo's arrow or his bloody knife from the body of a sufferer (149 b). In order to bite Colic, he goes for the teeth of a bear and squeezes the ailment with its paws (58). Before tackling Disease he puts on his viperous gloves, his snaky mitts, and smears his hands with the fat of snakes (16 b). He has a willow bough and an alder shaft with which he shoots down Tuoni's grub, or he grinds the animal with his pestle and mortar (21 c). To press down tumours he uses three stones taken from the river of Tuonela, or one as high as a church and as thick as a tower (28 a). He lops off tumours and excrescences with his axe (28 a), or uses a knife with a silver blade and a golden haft that fell into his hand from the sky (31). He requests Hiisi to bring a scythe from Esthonia or from Hell and lend it to him that he may cut out the disorder from which a patient is suffering

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[paragraph continues] (128 h). Nightmares he places on his steelyard (35) that they may exhaust themselves in weighing it down.

Defensive Precautions.

Besides employing instruments, an exorcist has often to take measures to protect his person, but their description also must not be understood too literally. From his point of view the mere recitation of a magic formula, in which he describes himself as putting on armour, was tantamount to really doing so. He drew no hard and fast line between fact and figment; the simulation of performing a certain act was potentially equivalent to its performance in reality. For at one period it is very possible that he, like the Shamans of Siberia, actually donned a particular dress for the occasion, and during the operation repeated a charm, such as one of those termed 'Taking defensive measures.' In the first of these the exorcist says he will put on an iron shirt, an iron helmet, iron gloves, copper socks, and iron boots, so that neither the arrows of a sorcerer nor the knives of a witch can injure him (2 a). These instruments, as we have often remarked, are figurative expressions, not to be taken in their ordinary sense. Again, he wishes the fiery shirt of his father and mother may be brought from Tuonela and put on him to guard him against the 'shooting instruments' of an 'archer' (2 b). He asks his dead mother to rise from the grave and bring from Tuoni's land a fur coat, which he will don, to protect himself against sorcerers, witches, etc. (176 b). Old wife Kave, Nature's daughter, is invoked by him to weave a cloth of gold and silver and make a shirt of defence, a copper cloak, which he can wear as a protection against spells and witches (176 e). He himself clips wool and fluff from a stone, hair

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from a rock, and makes of them a shirt of defence against sorcerers and witches (2 c). Or he asks the Maid of Mist and Fog to pluck wool from a rock and make a shirt of mist, a copper cloak, which he can wear day and night as a defence against sorcerers and Lapps (176 f). Ukko, the old father of the sky, is to build an iron fence, a steel screen, reaching from the sky to the earth, to shelter an exorcist and his people. It is to be interlaced with lizards and snakes, which will keep an eye on sorcerers and eat up spells, etc. (176 m, n). Ukko is further requested to let fall from the sky a pipe, a copper horn, a golden shield which the exorcist will use to prevent the arrows of a sorcerer from sticking into him (176 o). Lastly, he implores the Virgin Mary to give him her blue silk scarf to bind round his hand, that he may be able to quench a fire unhurt (172 a).


When an exorcist, or other reciter of magic songs, felt himself powerless and in need of assistance he had no lack of helpers. He received or hoped to obtain aid not only from the multitude of spiritual beings that seem to animate nature, but also from animals, birds, fish, insects, and trees. Sufficient examples of aid from the former class have already been given. Before enumerating instances that come under the latter headings, it is only necessary to add that help was to be expected from ancestors, from forests with their men, and from lakes with their armed men (13 a, 124); from a deceased mother (176 h); from horsemen and swordsmen in the sand, that have lain for long in the earth (1 b, 15 a).

An exorcist avers that he saddles snakes, and puts a bit

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in the mouth of a bear and a wolf, that they may run alongside him and gobble up the spells sent by village people (14 g). He threatens to raise a ram with twisted horns, or an ox with horns, to butt at and push away a disease or ailment such as colic (16 a, 58). He wishes an iron-hoofed mare, reared in Karelia, to kick a Hiisi away (22). The powerful black Vento ox, or a wolf of Manala, a bear of Kalma's, is invoked to extract the arrow of a sorcerer (37 c). He threatens to set his father's voracious, hairy-nosed, black dog at Disease—a dog with fiery mouth, with teeth like rakes, and with an iron heart that ere now has devoured a thousand men (16 a). And Hiisi's elks and reindeer, after being combed by Jesus, St. Andrew, and St. Peter, are desired to drive away the snakes and adders that drink the mistress's ale (91).

According to his own account, an exorcist owns three eagles, with iron, copper, and silver claws respectively, that will eat up the pain caused by burns (52 b). An eagle from Turjaland, with five talons like sickles, with a burning mouth, and eyes at the tip of its wings, is invoked by him to extract Keito's spears from the body of a suffering man (149 e). A famous eagle with a beak like five scythes, a throat like three cataracts, with iron claws, and eyes at the ends of its wings, is invited to come from Turja, from Lapland, to devour the pain caused by burns (128 i). An eagle from Turja is asked to lend three feathers to serve as a bulwark to a boat when about to shoot rapids (107 c). In the north-east, in Turjaland, dwells a famous eagle, under its wings are a hundred men, above them another hundred, at the tip of its tail are a thousand men, all girt with swords. This wonderful bird is invoked by an exorcist to remove the harm caused by spells (154 e). An iron-crested cock is

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desired to claw Dropsy, here spoken of as 'toads' and 'Hiisis' (56). An iron cock and hen are invited to rise from the ground to eat up burns and sip 'fire's broth,' another name for scalds and injuries from fire (171 d). A black cock and an iron hen are told to rise from the earth to help an exorcist by pecking out the eyes of jealous people and tearing the noses of sorcerers (176 t). The Creator's golden wattled cock is requested to come to speak on behalf of a defendant, to stop the judge's ears, to bribe the jurymen, and bind silk across the eyes of the sheriff (124). And a yellow wren is sent on an unsuccessful mission to Pohjola to fetch an old woman who could heal burns, though the errand was afterwards effected by a bee (52 g). Another bee is sent to a distant island to fetch honey for fermenting beer (142 a). And a spider is requested to spin a web to staunch a flow of blood (55 e). A golden burbot is to come from the mouth of a copper burbot to restore health and seize the pains from which a sick man is suffering, so that he may sleep in peace (102 b). In folklore-medicine it is a well-known remedy to catch a fish, convey to it symbolically the malady from which a patient is suffering, and then return it to the water. As this belief is also current in Finland, it seems likely that this song to restore health might have been sung during the performance of such an act.

An unfortunate mistress who has no one to herd her cows asks a willow, an alder, a rowan, and a bird-cherry tree, to do the work for her, and menaces them with dire punishment should they refuse (70 b). If a man cannot obtain the assistance he otherwise expected, he goes to a rock, to a boulder on a hill, for there is help in a hill, there are supplies in Hiisi's castle (65).

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As will be seen below, when we come to examine the structure of the Magic Songs, there are a multitude of instances in which the exorcist or other reciter of charms tells a short story, the incidents of which have reference to what he wishes to do or to get. By implication this is used as a precedent why a similar event should happen again. But in seven instances a previous event is explicitly cited as a precedent and reason why something analogous should again occur. In a couple of charms against injuries from spells, after narrating how formerly the Creator freed moons and suns, released men with swords, horses with saddles, and priests with their parishioners, from mighty battle-fields, the exorcist adds: 'May He effect deliverance on this occasion, remove the harm wrought by magic, and dispel the spell-sent injury' (42 a). After describing how Kuume formerly had enclosed the moon in an iron barn, and the sun in a mountain of steel, and how Kapo had released them, the exorcist continues, 'So I too now release this man from the spell-brought harm of villagers, enchantments of the long-haired ones, charms spoken by the women-kind. Just as the son of the sun escaped when freed by Päivätär, so may this person too escape when freed by me' (42 b). An exorcist relates that formerly the solid gates of a castle moved, its iron hinges shook, the copper hills quaked, the earth was shaken out of joint and the sky riven into holes at the coming of the hour of God, when help from the Lord approached. So he asks the Disease—here spoken of as an uninvited shape, an evil one—why it does not move and withdraw before an hour has elapsed (8 c). After recounting how father Lempo

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had received a cut, and mother Lempo and all the Lempos had cut themselves with their own knives, and stating that their veins were afterwards knotted up, the wizard summoned to stop the hæmorrhage exclaims, 'So why not this vein too? why is the blood not stopped, the deadly cataract not plugged?' (55 b.) A charm for making a vapour-bath to heal some malady begins with the statement that the gods above and the earth-matrons down below have baths that are heated up, new rooms that give forth whirls of smoke, and this is used as a reason for steam being given off on the present occasion, of such quality that it will serve as an ointment for injuries and an embrocation for wounds (87 a). A hunter after reciting his misfortunes asks, 'Why was the great Creator wroth, the giver of game enraged, that he never gives at all? He fed the tribe, gave the race to drink, he nourished the first ancestor, so why does he not feed me too with the great morsels of the tribe, or with the titbits of the race?' (89 c.) At the close of a brief charm to make bread rise, a despairing housewife cries to the yeast, 'The sun and moon have risen both, yet thou hast not begun to rise' (74).

Blessing and Cursing.

The exorcist did not often have recourse to blessing, though on one occasion he says: 'Whoever without envy looks, may Jesus bless him so that he shall honeyed eyes possess, shall wend his way with a honeyed mind' (3 a). He was stronger in curses. In a charm to guard against envy he says: 'Whoever looks with jealousy, may his eyes shed blood, let them run with rheum; into his eyes

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may the lashes grow, as thick as a hatchet-haft, a bowstring long; may these pour blood along and across his cheeks' (3 a). 'Whoever looks with an envious glance, may the slag of Hiisi fill his eyes, the soot of Hiisi soil his face, may a fiery bung plug up his mouth, may Lempo's lock clinch fast his jaws, may his mouth get overgrown with moss, the root of his tongue be broken off, may his head dry into stone and skin grow on the top' (3 b). 'If envious persons look, if cock-eyed people pry, may a branch tear out their eyes; may a withered fir-tree grow, an iron-branched tree, before the envious person's house, throw out thick shoots, on which he shall fix his eyes, that unless set free he won't get free during the space of earthly time' (3 c). Or the exorcist wishes that the bloody cloak of Hiisi, that takes five men to lift, may be bound round the heads of jealous, envious, prying people, so that they may neither see nor hear (3 d). An exorcist hopes that for any one that repeats his private spells, 'the root of his tongue may be twisted round and his hair rubbed off' (4 a). 'Whoever hath bewitchment used, on him may death bewitchment use; may his tongue rot off, his mouth get overgrown with moss' (4 b). After consigning all sorts of necromancers and warlocks to the mighty Rutja Rapids, the exorcist wishes they may there fall asleep till the grass grows through their heads, shoulders, and tall hats (14 c). Or after banishing a spirit of disease to the violent Vuoksi Rapids he says: 'If thou raise thy head from there, or exalt thy snout, may Ukko pain thy head with sharply pointed needles or with iron hail' (17 f). 'May all the sorcerers in dells, through their own arrows, come to nought; those that use witchcraft—through their knives;

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diviners—through their tools of steel; all other strong men through their strength' (2 d). 'May all the spells that sorcerers cast, all things that the seers see, return to their proper homes; may they cast their spells upon themselves, over their children sing their charms; may they destroy their families, may they dishonour kith and kin' (14 d). An exorcist addresses a poor frog in language like this: 'If thou raise thy head from there, may thy shins be smashed, thy thighs be rent, may thy marrow be withdrawn, from which an ointment will be cooked and unguents be prepared' (97). In a charm against bears: 'May the forest bear be choked with a honey ball in its mouth, so that its jaws won't open up, that its teeth won't come apart, that its tongue sha’n’t freely wag' (122 a).

Sometimes flattering words were used. The spirit of the grave is thus addressed: 'Kindly Kalma, lovely Kalma, Kalma of the fair complexion' (24). Gout or heartburn: 'Good Gout, thou lovely Gout, Mary's sweet Gout, depart!' (30.) The spirit of pain and sickness: 'Good mistress, Kivutar, distinguished woman, Vammotar' (128 c), or 'Lovely old wife of pains, good mistress Kivutar' (128 e). A hornet: 'O hornet, thou complaisant man, don't shoot thine arrows forth' (19 b). A snake: 'My sweetheart, my wee bird, my beauty, my wee duck:' (75.) An ermine: 'Furred beauty of the winter-time, dear little hen of fields run wild, flower dwelling at the root of firs' (73). In raising steam to make a vapour-bath: 'O welcome, welcome, my dear Steam, my darling Steam, my darling Warmth, thou steam of wood, dear water's warmth, old Väinämöinen's sweat!' (87 c.)

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Offerings, Worship.

In former times, as the Finns did not expect to get benefits gratis, they made offerings of various kinds to their divinities to propitiate them, and sometimes to harmful spirits to induce them to desist. In later times the offerings were very small, and when a hunter speaks of the gold and silver that he is offering to the forest deity, it probably means that he has scraped a little silver off a silver coin, or at most has laid a small silver coin or two at the foot of a tree. A trapper tells Kunnotar and the golden woman Kärehetär, the divinity of foxes, to cease melting gold and silver, as he is putting bits of gold and silver into her bowl. The gold is as old as the moon, the silver as old as the sun, and was brought by his father from the wars when the speaker was a child (173 a). The mistress of Metsola and the Forest's golden king are asked by a hunter to enter upon an exchange of gold and silver. The 'gold' of Metsola is more coloured and darker, that of the hunter is more glistening (173 b). A hunter asks the master and mistress of Tapio's farm to make an exchange of gold and silver. His gold is as old as the moon, his silver as old as the sun, and is Swedish silver brought from Tornio after a battle (173 c). Another hunter requests the mistress of the Forest and its golden king to take his gold and silver, and to give theirs, as it will be for the benefit of Tapio's farm, and will give delight to Metsola (173 d). A disconsolate hunter laments that the Forest does not care for his silver or ask for his gold (89 c).

Sometimes the offerings were of food. A trapper implores Kuippana, the king of the forest, to take a fancy to and approve of his salt and groats, and to give instead

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his 'sweet rye cakes' and 'groats,' i.e. game (153 a). Kuutar (Moon's daughter) and Päivätär (Sun's daughter) are requested by a hunter to bake a suet cake, a honeyed bannock, with which he may propitiate the Forest when he goes hunting (139 b). A trapper invites Tapio to take a fancy to his groats and salt (153 b). If Para brings good luck he is to get a calf as a reward (153 d). A man asks Water and Water's mistress to make him well, as he prays with chosen words, and gives blood and salt as offerings to appease and reconcile them (157 e). Chaff in the eye is invited to take a fancy to the sea in exchange for pleasant fat (45 b).

The references to worship are very rare, but they are worth noting. A hunter declares that he does not worship boulder stones, or praise a stone, or hunt on holy days and Sabbaths. Other men's offerings of gold, silver, and tin are not more glittering than his, and if they say a prayer he brings more solid offerings, and says the best of prayers to the donors that are best (89 d). Another hunter does not bow down to firs, but bows to the 'flowers' of a fir, i.e. to squirrels (72 b). A third hunter prays for 'hoofs and feet,' and will not give thanks for a stone or prostrate himself for stumps, or serve for willows (139 m).

A stone where festivities of some sort, no doubt partly of a religious nature, were held, is referred to in the expression 'Jesus’ stone of joy, the Creator's rock of sports' (203 b).






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Printed by T. and A. CONSTABLE, Printers to Her Majesty at the Edinburgh University Press


278:1 Wichmann, (1) p. 5.

278:2 Friis, p. 37.

279:1 Arvoituksia, No. 245.

281:1 Zolotnitski, pp. 199, 200.

282:1 Arvoituksia, No. 2006.

283:1 Killinen, p. 88.

285:1 So it is explained in Renvall's Dict. who adds that it is the same as Kuikkana. It seems to mean something long and hollow for there is a riddle: 'Kuippana on the stove-bench? Ans. A dough-trough or tub,' Arvoituksia, No. 544.

286:1 Arvoituksia, No. 1745.

286:2 Mannhardt, (1) pp. 120–126; Hyltén-Cavallius, vol. i, p. x9.

293:1 Arvoituksia, No. 176, 257, 1586; 129–131.

299:1 Ujfalvy, pp. 81, 115.

306:1 Kuvalehti, 1894, p. 91.

318:1 Mannhardt, (1) pp. 88, 123, 128; Hyltén-Cavallius, vol. i. p. 14.

321:1 Kalevala, vol. ii. pp. 165, 171.

325:1 Sprogis, p. 32.

326:1 Mannhardt, (2) p. 145.

328:1 Arvoituksia, No. 1849, 1833.

328:2 Grotenfelt, p. 19.

329:1 Arvoituksia, No. 1508, 1509.

330:1 Sprogis, p. 316.

333:1 Arvoituksia, No. 2026.

342:1 Arvoituksia, No. 334, 1368.

342:2 Mannhardt, (1) pp. 107, 90.




How at such time is one to speak, and how should one interrogate when a time of danger is at hand, a day of jeopardy impends? Already I, poor, wretched lad, have met with some embarrassment, with toilsome tasks, with a very difficult work, (when summoned) to eject attacks of sickness, to relieve from pain, to banish ailments wrought by spells, and overcome the enemy. Now they have need of me, they need me, and require that I divine an origin profound, and a great injury remove. Shall I begin, make venture now, shall I catch hold, shall I make bold to grip with hands a pestilence, to attack a devil (Perkele) with my hands, to give a hideous one a squeeze, and trample a gigantic one? I cannot anything effect without, maybe, the grace of God, without the true Creator's aid. May the Creator help bestow, O may the Lord assistance give, may God accord his aid to me after receiving my request and after he has touched my hand. May Jesus’ fluent mouth into my mouth transform itself; may the ready tongue of Jesus turn into mine; may Jesus’ pliant fingers into my fingers fit themselves. Where my words cannot reach let God's word reach; where my hands cannot pass let God's

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hands enter in; there where my fingers will not serve let the Creator's fingers serve; and where I can't breathe in a breath may the Lord breathe in a breath instead.


If haply I 'm not man enough I'll send a better one than I; I'll raise the earth-matrons from the earth, the mounted heroes from the sand, to strengthen me, to give me force, to shelter me, to give support in this extremely toilsome work in a time of sore distress. If haply I am not the man, if Ukko's son is not the man, from a damp dell let men arise, men of the sword from out the mire, glaive-men from out a sandy heath and horsemen from beneath the sand, that in the earth have lain for long, that in the ooze have long reposed, to help a well-beloved son, to be a famous fellow's mate.


If haply I am not the man, if Ukko's son is not the man, cannot effect deliverance, nor of this bogie (riena) riddance make, Louhi! mistress of Pohjola, come to effect deliverance and of this bogie riddance make. If haply I am not the man, if Ukko's son is not the man, O Päivätär, thou doughty maid, come to effect deliverance, to remove these plagues, to release from spell-wrought woes. If haply I am not the man, if Ukko's son is not the man, old mother Kave, Nature's daughter, O beautiful and darling Kave, come to effect deliverance, to banish sickness wrought by magic, to free from evils brought by curses. If haply I am not the man, if Ukko's son is not the man, O Hiisi, come from Hiitola, thou humpback! from the home of gods to cast out that which needs must be cast out and cause the monster's death.

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I that am one of little strength, a full-grown man weak-spirited, shall blow a horn towards the sky, shall through a cloud-rift sound a pipe; I'll shout a cry of dire distress, send forth an agonising cry through earth, through Manala, through the level sky, its gates will burst apart whence favours issue forth. A thousand friends will then arrive, a hundred warriors of the Lord, from the heavens up above, from earth's foundations down below, to strengthen me, the feeble man, to give the weak man manliness in these exceeding toilsome tasks, in these affairs that have no end.



O where shall I, a powerless man, defend myself, protect myself? There I, a powerless man, defend myself, protect myself, at the open door beneath the shelf, beside the door-post of the hut, at the yard entrance to the lane, at the last gate. There I defend myself against the female throng. If these defences are not strong, these safeguards not reliable, I, powerless man, shall guard myself, I, wretched man, defend me thus against the throng of full-grown men. I'll dress myself inside a copse, in growing bush five suits I'll don on a blue stone's back, where two roads part, at an undulating pool, at a rippling spring, at a rapid's wildly foaming surge, at a whirlpool of a violent stream. There I, the helpless man, shall guard myself, protect myself; I'll put on me an iron shirt, I shall invest myself in steel, equip myself in copper socks, shall gird me with a copper belt ’gainst water, land, ’gainst fire and

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flame, against a variegated stone, against the grindstones of the sky. 1 With an iron cap, an iron coat, with an iron helmet o’er my neck, with iron gloves upon my hands, with iron boots upon my feet, with them I'll enter Hiisi's lands, I'll wander over Lempo's lands, and sorcerers’ arrows will not hurt, nor the knife-blades of a witch, nor the instruments of men that shoot, nor a diviner's steel.


May the fiery fur-coat of my sire, to serve as a fiery covering, may my mother's fiery shirt, to serve me as a fiery shirt, be brought from Tuonela and put on me, so that no sorcerer's arrows penetrate nor an archer's shooting instruments. If that is not enough, let the might of Ukko from the sky, the might of the Earth-mother from the earth, and old Väinämöinen's strength come forth to help and favour me, to strengthen me and give me might, lest Piru's arrows penetrate, or the arrows of a sorcerer.


Wizards there are in every dell, and sorcerers at every gate, diviners are at every fence, soothsayers are on every path. But I am not at all alarmed, I am not in the least afraid. I clip the wool from off a stone, fluff from a stone that has lain a winter there, I break the hair from off a rock, and from the gravel pluck coarse hair. A shirt of defence I make of that, ’neath which I sojourn every night and occupy myself by day, lest the sorcerer eat too much, lest the witch should wound o’ermuch. If that is not

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enough, ten adders shall I yoke, set saddles on a hundred snakes, here at my side to glide along; from his chains I'll slip a bear, from his headstall loose a wolf, to rush in front of me, to course in rear of me, to gobble up the village spells, to overwhelm the envious, the sorcerers in every dell, the witches in every lake, the soothsayers on every path, the envious in every place.


A maiden darted from a cloud, a holy handmaid—from the sky, and sat down suddenly to weep upon a honeyed, grassy knoll. There she sat down and also wept. Three rivers flowed from a single maiden's tears; one was of water, one of mead, and fiery rapids formed the third. In the rapids was a fiery reef, on the reef was a fiery birch, a fiery eagle was on the birch, its beak was like a sorcerer's nose, its talons like five reaping-hooks, (fitted) to draw a wizard's arrow out, to overcome the powerful ones, to snatch away the soothsayers, to keep watch over jealous folk, so that no sorcerer's arrows hurt, no sorcerer's darts, no witch's knife, no pointed iron of soothsayers. May all the sorcerers in dells through their own arrows come to nought; those that use witchcraft—through their knives; diviners—through their tools of steel; all other strong men—through their strength.


If I exert myself, let nine exert themselves; if I spring up with two, let eight spring up in haste to side with me that am a lad, to encircle me that am alone. Let my great kinsfolk rise like a mountain's solid slope, my splendid

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kindred like a long-drawn bank of cloud, 1 to stand near me, at my side to march against a mob of enemies, ’gainst places that are perilous.


What did I hear? what did they say when I was staying in this land, when I was living in the world, a very long time ago? Thus did I hear, and thus they spoke: My darling God, my powerful haltia, ever assisted me when among those sorcerers, in the neighbourhood of soothsayers, he helped me with his gracious hand, with his mighty strength; for a whole day he carried me, at eve he let me go to rest.



Envy I cannot guard against, nor from opponents shield myself, when dealing with these toilsome tasks, these difficult affairs. May the Envy-matron keep good watch, may Väinämöinen me defend. Whoever looks with jealousy, looks pryingly with eyes askew, resentful glances casts, or some malevolence prepares, may his eyes shed blood, let trickle rheum into the fire of hell, the evil power's flames; into his eyes may the lashes grow, thick as a hatchet-haft, a bowstring long; may these pour blood along, and across his cheeks. Whoever without envy looks may Jesus bless him so that he shall honeyed eyes possess, shall wend his way with honeyed mind.

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Whoever looks with envious glance, keeps turning round with jealous eye, causes bewitchment with his mouth, or imprecates with 'words,' may the slag of Hiisi fill his eyes, the soot of Hiisi soil his face, may a fiery bung plug up his mouth, may Lempo's lock clinch fast his jaws, may his mouth get overgrown with moss, the root of his tongue be broken off, may one of his eyes like honey run, like butter may the other flow into the raging fire, into Hiisi's bin of coals, may his head dry into stone and skin grow on the top,


Whoever happens to o’erlook, or from one side intently stares, may he look with honeyed eyes, may he peer with a honeyed glance. But if envious persons look, if cockeyed people pry, may a twig tear out their eyes, may a branch pluck out their eyes; may a withered fir-tree grow, an iron-branched tree throw out thick shoots, an iron-branched tree with jagged top, before that envious person's house, on which he shall fix his eyes, on which he shall his glances cast, so that unless set free he won't get free, unless set loose he won't get loose, during the span of earthly time, while the moon sheds its golden light.


If envious persons look, if the cock-eyed open wide their eyes, from windows shall grimaces make, shall over farmyards peep about, keep listening at the cattle-sheds or meditate near the homestead fence; may the bloody cloak of Hiitola [v. Panula], may Hiisi's [v. Tapiola's] gory rug, that needs five men to lift, be bound across the eyes, be fastened round the ears, and the hat of Hiisi round the

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napes of those that sit at windows, that stand at the end of a bridge, that spy at the end of a cattle-shed, that lie in ambush not far off, so that with eyes they can't be seen, so that with ears they can't be heard.



Whoever incites to anything, or makes his precious [F. golden] tongue to wag, may he receive his words again, may his thoughts of malice roll till they reach his house, or at his cottage land; may they eat into his heart, of his liver may they taste, entwine themselves about his lungs, keep dancing in his lap; upon his body may they seize, down to the quick may they penetrate. Whoever shall repeat my words, may they from his head pass out, from his brains may they slip down, like needles with points of steel, sail-needles with spiky points, may the root of his tongue be twisted round, may the hair of his head be rubbed away. Whoever shall with curses curse, pronounces maledictive words, down his throat may a fiery plug, down his gorge may a copper wedge, may the gag of Hiisi ’tween his teeth, may Lempo's lock upon his jaws be forced, may his tongue turn into stone, may his mouth be overgrown with moss.


Whoever has pronounced a curse, with his tongue whined out a curse, with his lips has mumbled out a curse, with his teeth has bitten off a curse, may the stones pronounce a curse on him. He that has melted any one, may the boulder stones melt him; he that has roasted any

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one, him may the flat stones roast; he that caused injury by spells, may an atrophy injure him; whoever may have borne a grudge, may the grave bear him a grudge; whoever has bewitchment used, on him may death bewitchment use, may his tongue rot off, his mouth get overgrown with moss.



Of thy old mother I'll inquire; I'll make thy mother call to mind why thou, Disease, hast made attack, why thou, Elfshot, hast found thy way into a wretched human skin, the body of a mother's son. I know not who thy maker is, I cannot tell who sent thee forth. Art thou a sickness by the Creator made, a bane decreed by God, or art thou caused by human art, both wrought and brought by another man, sent hither for reward, procured with harmful pelf to do the stipulated deeds, to execute work paid in coin, to destroy a person that was born, to ruin one that has been made? If thou be a sickness by the Creator made, a bane decreed by God, on my Creator I fling myself, I cast myself upon my God; the Lord abandons not the good, the Maker killeth not the virtuous. If thou art caused by human art, a disease produced by another man, I'll get to know thine origin, surely thy birthplace ascertain. Thence have attacks of sickness come ere now, thence elfshots have been shot, from the regions of divining men, from the grazing grounds of singing men, from the homesteads of vile miscreants, from the trampled fields of sorcerers, from the humid dells of wizards, from the hilltops of ecstatic men, from spells pronounced by harridans,

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from the witchery of long-haired hags, from the distant limits of the north, from the wide country of the Lapp, from spots where reindeer throw their young, from sandy heaths where stags career, from the house of the spectral host (kalmalaiset), from Manala's eternal huts, from mouldering heaps of soil, from earth that often must be moved, from the rolling gravel, from the rustling sand. 1


I do not know at all just now, the reason I cannot surmise, why, Hiisi, thou hast entrance made, hast, devil (Perkele), made, thyself at home in a guiltless heart, in a belly free of blame. From waters of witches hast thou come, from the lilies on a landlocked lake, from Nixies’ (lummekoira) haunts, from a water-Hiisi's hole, from the sea's black mud, a thousand fathoms deep, or from the heath of death (kalma), from the interior of the earth, from a dead man's belly, from the skin of one departed for eternity, from the armpit of a spectral form (kalmalainen), from beneath the liver of a shade (manalainen), hast thou been torn from a cross's base, been conjured up from women's graves, beside a decorated church, from the edge of a holy field, or from great battle-fields, from the slaughter-fields of men?


From where, wretch, hast thou sent thyself, whence, Lempo, hast thou cut away, whence, filthy one, torn thyself away, why, Hiisi's refuse, hast thou shamed thyself? Who created thee, who formed thee, wretch, to eat, to gnaw, to

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bite, to crunch? Out of the water hast thou rolled, from the froth of water poured thyself, from rushing streams, from roaring falls, from a rapid's seething foam, from burning swirls, from the great ridges of the sea, from billows capped with foam, or from still waters, running streams, from unfrozen pools, from rippling springs? Or hast thou issued from the earth, ascended from a field, thou wraith (peiko), from clearings bare, from land unploughed, from humid dells, from mossless swamps, from near mud-castle, from a watery ridge, 1 from a forest-Hiisi's hole, from the cleft of five great hills, from a copper mountain top, from the peak of a copper Fell, from Bruin's stony grot, from a bear's den of boulder-stones, from the tracks of a running wolf, from the steps of one with a down-turned snout, from places where the foxes bark, from pairing-places of the hare, hast thou been poured from froth of calves, been gathered from the foam of dogs? Or from fireplaces hast thou come, been raked up from the burning brands, hast thou arrived from heated stones, from amid the smoke of a bathing-house? Or by the wind hast thou been rocked, by a wintry blast hast thou been swung in the level sky, behind light clouds, by the wind's path hast thou come here, along the course of a wintry blast, from places shaken by the wind, from where the wintry tempest drives?



Approach to discern thy work, to heal the evil thou hast wrought, to anoint the wounds, to souse the sores, before I tell thy mother, and to thy parent say aside: 'Thy son

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has done an evil act, thy child—a deed of infamy.' More is a mother's grief, great is a parent's suffering, in healing sicknesses, in dealing with grievous injuries, when her son is doing wrong, her child does damage recklessly.


Come hither, hurry up, at thy deeds to feel ashamed, to smell the wounds thyself hast caused, to lick the sores thyself hast made, with thy honeyed lips, with thy honeyed tongue. Into thy mouth put thou the sores, under thy teeth the nasty smell, into thy jaws the suffering, into thy belly smarting wounds, seeing thou wroughtest this infamy, seeing thou causedst the evil deed, evil for thee, evil for me, evil indeed for both of us. If thou hast acted wrongfully, better thou dost to make amends; it will be nicer for thyself, more advantageous for thy life.



May the raging of angry wounds depart, may a pure blessing come instead, when I have spoken with my mouth, when I have breathèd with my breath. May the inflammation roll into a lake, sores sink into the earth, as a stone sinks in the waves, as iron—in the sea.


So may thine angriness dissolve, as salt has melted in the sea, so may thy malignity subside, as in the water sand has sunk; may thy vexations melt away, as wax has melted in the fire, may thy bitterness evaporate, like the

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dew upon a sandy heath, from a poor human being's skin, from the body of a mother's son. 1

Fluid is tar when being made, and fat when being melted down, may thine angriness more liquid be, more meltable than that. May thine angriness as fluid be, as butter when it melts, as milk in summer when it's milked, as an ice-hole in the winter-time.


Eat up thine angriness thyself, put in thy mouth thy malignity, thy spell-wrought horrors—down thy throat, the pains thou occasioned—down thy gorge; like brandy drink thine angriness, like ale the anguish thou hast caused, like 'sour water' thy bitterness, like milk thy spell-sent malady, like honey thine acerbity, like buttered eggs thy fever-fits, 2 down through thy bony jaw, through thine aching teeth, through the dry channel of thy throat, through thy tongue's root, into thy golden belly, thy copper paunch, into thy dainty liver and thy yellow lungs,—let them be coiled about thy heart, and into thy gall let them be brought.



How, formerly, was needless harm removed, how were malicious deeds made good? By those ere now was needless harm removed, by those were malicious deeds

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made good, by those words that are handed down, by pronouncing the deep origin. By them remove, thou needless harm, by them take flight, thou evil one; remove when driven to remove, decamp when driven to decamp, The needless harm must now remove, the evil power must flee away; now is the time for thee to move, the starting time for thee to start from this poor human being's skin, from the body of a mother's son.


On snow-skates, Hiisi, now depart, thou evil man, begin to flee, tall fiend, begin to scud away, Satan, begin to hurry off before the rising of the sun, the dawning of the god of dawn, the uprising of the sun, the crowing of the cock. Now it is Hiisi's time to skate, the time for Satan to hurry off, the time for the evil power to jog, a very timely hour of flight. A road is made for thee to use, more than enough to glide upon, moonlight thou hast to travel by, there is light for thee to wander by, on a horse along the road, on snow-skates o’er the hill, or across the water in a boat to the distant limits of the north, that there thou mayst remain so long as there is neither sun nor moon.


Why formerly in days of yore the solid gates of a castle moved, its iron hinges shook again, the turrets of the castle reeled, the castle's bulwarks flashed with fire, the castles moved, the lakes were stirred, the copper hills quaked suddenly; the atmosphere from its socket moved, with a crash the earth shook out of joint, great clouds were broken through and through, the sky was riven into holes, all the atmosphere into apertures (F. windows), at

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the coming of the hour of God, when the help of the Lord approached; So, why dost thou not likewise move, not move, thou uninvited shape, why, evil one, not flee away, why not withdraw, thou good-for-nought, at the expiry of this hour, the termination of this term? Now is the precious time of grace, the solemn festival of God, the priests are going to the mass, proceeding to the preaching-house.


Thou hound of Hiisi, disappear, be ashamed, thou shameless dog, from my belly sally forth, thou brute, from my liver, monster of the earth, bugbear (riena) of Hiisi, cease to rage, cease to abuse a living man. Wilt thou not quit when thou art loosed, not quit with him that lets thee loose, when he causes the deliverance, when he effects the grievous task, when he ejects the injury, when he ousts the troubles caused by spells?

The Sun's son formerly escaped, when Päivätär let him escape; from a cell (F. ring) the moon formerly escaped, from the inside of an iron 'barn.' Kave released from the cell the moon, released the sun from the rock, by which it had by Kuume been circled round, had by a devil (Pirulainen) been concealed in a stony rock, in an iron 'barn.'



If thou shouldst ask to travel post, shouldst for a driving horse beseech, I'll give thee, troth, a posting horse, I shall procure a dark grey horse, that thou mayst travel home, to thy country mayst return. I'll make for it hoofs of stone,

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[paragraph continues] I'll have cast for it copper legs, I'll bit it with a sinew bit, and if the sinew will not hold, I shall prepare an iron bit. If that should insufficient prove, I'll give a stronger posting horse, a better runner I will add. From Hiisi take a horse, from the mountain choose a foal. A good horse lives in Hiisi's place, a black-maned horse among the Fells, for one that can hold the reins aright, for one that driveth skilfully in iron harness, in copper driving gear. Its head is made of stone, in copper is its body cast, its back is made of steel, of iron are its legs built up, its muzzle scatters fire, its legs spirt sparks. Its hoofs slip not upon the ice, its legs crack not against a rock, e’en on the air's slippery path, even of Kalma's icy track.


If thou the mountain cannot climb, cannot ascend the Hill of Pain, good horses live at Hiisi's place, on the mountains there are first-rate foals. From Hiisi take a horse, from the hard land a trotting horse, the chestnut nag of Hiisi with forelock of fire, with iron mane, which from the housetop must be bridled, which must from the fence be saddled; 1 the mountains it can well ascend, it can gallop over every rock; its feet don't slip, its hoofs don't knock when it hurries over stones, when it rattles o’er the beach; on its croup is a lake, clear water on its back-bone lies, water of which the sorcerers drink, fire-throated ones, who drinking make it hiss. Harness the fiery foal upon the fiery plain, drive furiously over rocks, make the dens of Hiisi to resound, like a spark flash past, like a fleet hound rush, for Hiisi's gelding does not sweat, nor the beauty of Manala turn a hair.

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Thither I send the pains away, thither I shove the grievous aches, into the middle of the open sea. The vehement maid of Kipula is sitting in a lazy way on the lower end of a speckled stone, on the edge of a bulky flag, spinning pains on a copper spinning-staff, into a ball she winds the pains, into a bundle gathers them, into the water she flings the ball, to the depths of the sea she hurls it down, whence it may never more be fetched during the span of worldly time, while the moon sheds its golden light.


Three maidens, Luonnotars, are sitting as they sob and weep where three roads part, four rivers flow; they gather pains, torments they cram into a speckled chest, a copper box; they bark their hands, they tear their breasts, their annoyance they bewail, if pains perchance should not be brought. For only then would it be nice, if I brought pains and sicknesses in the evening, morning and again at noon. Cease weeping, surely I'll give you pains, I bring this moment a walletful, a lapful I present, that came from a wretched human skin, from the body of a wretched beast, that bears upon it a hundred hairs, that sheds a thousand hairs.


A kettle is owned by Kivutar, the daughter of Väinö has a pot in which she boils up pains in the middle of the Hill of Pain (Kipu-mäki), on the summit of Mount Suffering (Kipu-vaara). At the hill's centre stands a thorp, in

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the middle of the thorp a field, in the middle of the field a spring, in the middle of the spring a stone with nine holes in it, bored with a borer, with an auger drilled. The centre hole is nine fathoms deep and into it the pains are flung, the dreadful sufferings are thrust, the dangerous wounds are cast by force, the calamities are pressed, so that by night they cannot act, so that by day they can't escape.


The old wife of sickness, Kivutar, was carrying a fiery bugle-horn in the middle of the Hill of Pain, on the summit of Mount Suffering; one spark dropt off, the red fire fell on the summit of Mount Suffering and became inflammatory burns, turned into sickness for men.

The girl of Tuoni, Maid of Pain, herself in pain was weeping tears, was lamenting in her suffering, as she bustled about with her knees in hot ashes, her arms in the fire, collecting the pains with stone gloves on her hands. She boils the pains and sickness in a wee kettle, an iron baking pan, at the end of an iron bench, that no one should receive a pang, that no one should receive a hurt.


Who bade thee do the deed, incited thee to a sneaking act, to raise thy nose, to turn thy snout, to do these deeds, to execute these deeds of death?

Did thy father order thee, thy father or thy mother or the eldest of thy brothers or the youngest of thy sisters or some great one of thy family, a brilliant member of thy race, when thou didst commit the spiteful deed, didst perpetrate the needless act?

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Thy father did not order thee, thy father nor thy mother nor the eldest of thy brothers nor the youngest of thy sisters nor some great one of thy family, a brilliant member of thy race. Thyself hast done the spiteful deed, hast perpetrated the ghastly act, abundance of evil thou hast wrought, entirely on thine own account, contrary to the will of God, to the dignity of the Blessed One.



My Nature I shall try to raise, 1 I shall summon my genius (haltia): my Nature, from thy hole arise, my Haltia, from under a fallen tree, my Helper, from beneath a stone, my Guide, from out the moss; come, dread-inspiring Death (Kalma), come at a time of anguish dire, to give support, to safeguard me, to help me and to strengthen me for the work that must be done, the hurt that must be known about. 2


Arise, my Nature, reliantly, awake, O Genius (haltia) of my life, from under a tree, O Brilliant Eyes, from under a flag, O Spotted Cheeks, my Nature that is hard as stone, my hair that is tough as iron; O Nature of the old man and wife, my mother's Nature and my sire's, the Nature of my ancestor in addition to my Nature rise; may I be clothed with a burning coat, with furs of fiery red, that Hiisi's folk may be confused, earth's awful beings may be abashed while this sorcerer uses magic arts, while a Laplander is uttering words.

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My Flesh, bestir thyself in me, in a fellow's neck, O Strong desire; arise, my Nature, reliantly, my Genius, with austerity to seize with me, cause fright with me, to conquer enemies, to crush the warring hosts; rise, cease from slumbering, from reposing in a leafy copse. Thou hast lain in the ground for long, a long while in a gloomy place, so thou art no better than a corpse, no handsomer than a defunct; arise, as thou hast risen afore, when I try to raise thee up. Hills flowed like butter then, rocks like the flesh of swine, blue forest-wilds like mead, the land-locked lakes like ale, low land rose up, high land sank down at the coming of the hour of God, when the help of the Lord approached, when I, the child, was conjuring, when trying to inspire myself.


How do they sing and how lament when a time of danger is at hand, when a day of jeopardy impends? Thus may they speak, thus ask in truth: may the hour of God arrive, may help from the Lord approach the while this elfshot is giving thrusts, this loathsome thing is torturing, when a man is shouting in distress, when a man in pain is yelling out. Thou 'hound of the Hiisis,' avaunt! avaunt! thou 'cur of Manala' leave off from striking one that has been born, from destroying one that has been made. If thou, O Hiisi, art from hell, or a devil (piru) from Pimentola, if thou of devils (perkele) the smallest art, of Satans the most glorious, then, Hiisi, go to hell, thou devil, to Pimentola, they need thee there, thy coming they expect, thy father is weeping there, thy parent is bewailing thee on bloody beds, on bolsters red.

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No sorcerer bewitches me, no Lapp can place me under spells; for my bewitcher I bewitch, my would-be conqueror I subdue, I gouge the eye of a jealous man, I tweak the nose of a sorcerer, let him be any man alive, a black-complexioned countryman, or any woman now alive, a reddish brown-complexioned witch, or a woman of complexion fair, of any complexion—’tis the same. When I begin to sing, begin to speak, I split his shoulders by my song, bisect his jawbone by my lay, I rend the collar of his shirt, from the breast-bone I tear it off; then on his head by song I bring a cap, and underneath the cap a sheaf of Viborg worms, of hairworms quite a heap. Him that would eat me up I feed with these, and make them bite whoever would bite me. I feed the best divining-men, the sorcerers, the jealous ones, on toads with all their feet, on lizards with their wings, on snakes, black snakes with their venom, paws and all.


Hither I have not come indeed without my skill, without my art, without my father's force of mind, without my father's armaments, to a place where men are eaten up, to a place where full-grown men are drowned. Let them eat a sheep raw, an uncooked one tear, but not a man like me, nor yet a worse man, or a clumsier. With a man's girdle I am girt, with a man's buckle I am clasped, am fastened with a hero's brooch. Sorcerers once were bewitching me, three Laplanders attempted it, three cruel sorcerers, nine extra wicked ones, three summer nights, nine autumn nights, completely bare, without a rag of clothes; this

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much they profited by me, just this much they got out of me, what an axe gets from a stone, a borer from a rock, a stump from slippery ice, or Death (Tuoni) from an empty room.


Not me will the arrows pierce, not on me the sharp iron take effect. The wizard's arrows will not pierce, nor the diviner's steel; I should make blunt the points, into a hook I'd twist the heads. I have a sandy skin, a hide of iron-slag, a body made of steel, ta’en from the branches of a fir. If I desire to match myself, with the men to compare myself, I sing the sorcerers with their darts, the archers with their instruments, the witches with their iron knives, the diviners with their steel into the mighty Rutja [v. Turja] Falls, into the awful midstream broil, beneath the highest cataract, beneath the most tremendous swirl, amid the rapids' stones, amid the burning boulder stones, to blaze like fire, to sparkle like a spark. There may the sorcerers fall asleep, there may the jealous ones repose, until the grass shall grow through the head and the tall cap, through the shoulders of the sorcerer, right through the muscles of the neck of each sleeping sorcerer, each slumbering jealous one.


Perchance I am not after all a person to be termed a man, born of a powerful mother, or by a steady-going woman rocked, if I be eaten without a cause, though innocent be torn to bits. I am a sorcerer's youngest son, the 'calf' of an old divining-man; I to a smith's went formerly, went formerly, went yesterday, again this very day, where things of steel were being made, where things

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of iron were being wrought; I ordered shoes of steel, I had a coat of copper cast, which a sorcerer's arrows will not pierce, a sorcerer's arrows, witches’ knives, the sharp weapons of divining-men. May all spells that the sorcerers cast, all things that the seers see, that the roadside prowlers snatch, all charms the Laplanders repeat, return to their proper homes, arrive at their tents again; may they cast spells upon themselves, over their children sing their charms, may they destroy their families, may they dishonour kith and kin, may the sorcerer wither up, may the roadside prowler be transformed, may the magic-drummer (Käsikannus) fall, may the Laplander be killed by the sharp tools himself has made, by the spell-sent harm himself has caused, let the sorcerer perish by his darts, the wizard by his steel, the witch by her iron knives, by his songs the Laplander.


Not me do the sorcerers bewitch, the wizards lay no hands on me, that I should die upon the road, on the journey should fall faint, though young should fall asleep, though ruddy should expire. My mother washed me naked on a nether stone, three times upon a summer night, to become a wizard on every road, a skilful man in every land, to be a singer when at home, a good performer when abroad. Troth, formerly in days gone by, the sorcerers were bewitching me, the sorcerers bewitched, the 'vipers' cursed, had a mind to lay me down, were threatening to sink me down, to serve as a plank on the swampy spots, to serve as a bridge on the miry bits, but being a capable man indeed I was not much concerned thereby; I set myself to cast a spell, myself began to utter words, by

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song I turned the best of singers into quite the worst, brought a pigskin o’er their eyes, a dogskin o’er their ears, brought stony shoes upon their feet, and stony gloves upon their hands, a lump of stone upon their necks, and a stony tall cap on their heads.


I am the son of a Northerner, that by a Turja girl was rocked, by a Laplander was swung in a cradle made of iron; the old man (Ukko) rumbled in the sky, the old man rumbled, the earth did quake, like water the Creator's clouds got wet, the heaven crackled like a fire at the creation of this boy, when he was brought upon the world. I should term that man a man, consider him a full-grown man, who could draw my bow, could tighten my crooked bow. ’Twas only yesterday I drove the shaft of my spear a fathom deep into a clay-bottomed field, into the unyielding earth; I milked fierce adders with my 'nails,' with my hands I handled snakes, I armed a thousand men with swords on a single summer's night; bruin I visited at home, at his own house a brindled bear, I bitted wolves, I shackled bears to a she-Lempo's tether-post, on Hiisi's gallows I hung them up.


On me another man can't put his shoes, nor his laces tie. I put my own shoes firmly on, I draw the laces tight, I stick an arrow in the floor, an oaken shaft into trampled ground, lest a sorcerer eat too much, lest witches wound excessively. If that be not enough, a chestnut stallion I possess, a splendid-looking horse upon whose croup is a lake, on whose backbone clear water lies, a fountain where

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the collar sits, the water of which the witches drink, the jealous folk of the village swill, fire-throated ones who drinking make it hiss. But the wizard did not know the least I had already drunk therefrom, before the sorcerer had risen, the jealous person had awoke. Of gravel I made my mitts, my gloves of stone with which I handled adders and with my fingers gathered snakes; I took ten adders, a hundred snakes to go with me, to speed with me, to course in front of me, to wander at my side, to eat the spells of villagers, their incantations to devour.


Already in days gone by three attacks of sickness came, to the danger of my wretched self; one came along the swamp, the second came by other ground, by water came the third. The one that came along the swamp had a pole-like neck; the one that came along the ground had a crooked arch-like neck; the one that came by water was the hardest of the three attacks. But, being a capable man indeed, I was not much alarmed thereby; from an eagle I took the claws, the talons from a hawk, from a bear the paws, from bruin the crooked hands, with which I clawed the miscreant, for all time checked the hideous thing, elfshots I squeezed with them and smashed the arrows of disease.


No man is eaten without a cause, no man is slain without disease, without the great Creator's leave, without the death-decree of God. If I am not the proper man, can't recognise this cruel pain, from spell-sent troubles can't give release, my comrade is the proper man. He dwells

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with Hiisi's folk, on the mountain roams around. If I should take him as a help, to strengthen me, to give me might, then no oaken club will break a bone in my knee nor will a copper hook from my neck draw blood, nor the most violent gust of wind raise from my ears a single hair.



Thou 'hound of Hiisi' disappear, cease, 'dog of Manala,' get wearied, 'shameless cur,' unchristened and unbaptized, of deranging a christian man, of rubbing one that is devout, of eating the core of the heart, of twisting up the lungs, of stamping on the wame, of cutting gashes in the paunch, of gnawing at the navel cord, of laying hands upon the loins, of boring at the sides, of gliding along the vertebræ, of crunching joints, of fracturing the ends of bones, of rending the bones of the thigh, of smashing the bones of the shins, of dislocating arms, of causing rattling in the chest, of nibbling the skull, of scraping the scalp.

If I am not the proper man, I that am rather strong can't help, then I shall send a better man to remove this malady, to effect this grievous task, to destroy the monstrous thing. A man from the sea displays himself, he shakes his furs, flips his coat of skin; his hose are a fathom at the knee, two fathoms wide below the knee; here now let him show himself to remove this malady, to bring about deliverance. But if it pays no heed to him, nor speedily removes itself, there is the Ogress (Syöjätär) in the sea with a mouth in the middle of her head, a tongue in the middle of her throat, who has eaten a hundred men, destroyed a thousand

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full-grown men; may she now also eat thee up, as the bread she eats, as the feast she holds.

If little good results from that, if still it pays no heed at all, I'll raise the earth-matrons from the earth, the first house-fathers from the field, all the swordsmen from the ground, the mounted-heroes from the sand; I'll raise the forests with their men, with their folk the clumps of juniper, fir-thickets with their families, with their bairns the landlocked lakes, a hundred persons armed with swords, a thousand heroes with swords of iron, to strengthen me, to give me might, to be my refuge, my support, in this my terrible distress, this specially laborious task.

May the aerial god himself, old Väinämöinen and the smith Ilmarinen themselves make their appearance here, to recognise these fearful pains, to give release from spell-sent harm, to grind this Hiisi, and this Juutas crush.


With what shall I the elfshots squeeze, check the sickness caused by fairy darts (amputauti), with what extract the sorcerer's bolts, with what the bloody needles draw from a wretched human being's skin, from the body of a mother's son? Quite lately, only yesterday I was in company with smiths, on the trampled floor of hammerers; I got made for me little tongs, a pair of splendid nipping-irons with which I'll lift the sorcerer's bolts, I'll draw the spears of Keito out.

A bear has brawny paws, I've paws thrice brawnier, five, six times more effectual with which I'll seize the malady.

But, if it pay no heed to that, I'll take the hands of one deceased, the fists of one that has disappeared, that in the

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earth has lain for long. More dreadful are a dead man's hands, those of a corpse more horrible, with them shall I the elfshots squeeze, tightly compress the fairy darts, shall jerk the bloody needles out, shall drive the pointed things away, shall snatch the 'bristles of the pig' from a naked skin without a stitch of clothes; with them I shall the nightmare put below the earth, below the ground, below a plough's black soil, below five coulters and below a mountain's copper edge.



If thou remove not speedily, motherless dog, dost not depart, thy old mother I'll interrogate, thy mother I'll inform; a mother first of all is milked, the boy is afterwards let drink of his mother's milk, his parent's own white milk.

If thou shouldst pay no heed thereto with willows I'll belabour thee, I'll fustigate with rowan shoots, I'll flog thee well with tips of fir.

If that be not enough, if thou remove not speedily I'll raise a ram with twisted horns, procure an ox with outspread horns, I'll order it to butt at thee, I'll make it strike thee with its horns. If little should result therefrom, I'll take the hands of one deceased, from under the ground a dead man's fists, from a burial-place I'll rout up hands; with them I'll claw the 'toads,' the Satans I shall hurt with them.

If that be not enough, from an eagle I shall take the claws, the talons from a hawk. There is an eagle, a famous bird, plashing on the water of the sea, dwelling on

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the billows of the sea, one of its wings the water skimmed, the other nearly touched the sky; with its hard claws I'll chase the sudden maladies away, I'll crush to bits the 'murderers,' the evil-doers I shall squeeze.

If it should pay no heed thereto, have no intention to remove, from a bear I'll take the claws, from a blood-drinker hook-like claws; an eagle has cruel claws, a squirrel (F. firbranch bird) rake-like nails, the paws of bruin are crueller, the claws of a bear more terrible; with them I'll claw the miscreant, for ever check the hideous wretch.

Now, if it pay no heed thereto, I still remember other means, I know more words of magic power and mightier antagonists. In a den I've a hairy-nosed black dog, it was formerly my father's dog, precisely was my parent's hound. Its mouth is burning with fire, its throat is glowing with flame, its teeth resemble cinder-rakes with a tongue shoved in between, of iron is its heart composed, of copper the entrails in its paunch. It has eaten already a hundred men, destroyed a thousand full-grown men; by it I'll have thee eaten up, have thy father and mother eaten up, I'll make it eat thine ancestor and thy other mighty relative; it will bite thee bones and all, it will crunch thee bones and all, till thou canst not shake thy head, till thou canst not draw thy breath.


Hast thou regarded me as dead, missed me as if I'd disappeared? I have not died at any rate, I have not wholly disappeared. Quite lately, only yesterday, I was at bruin's home, at the house of an iron[-coloured] bear; I bitted by my song the wolf, the bear I fettered with iron chains. I walked upon a viperous field, I ploughed the

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viper-swarming soil, turned up the snaky earth with a keen-edged plough, with a copper share. I held the vipers in my nails, in my hands the snakes; ten of the vipers I put to death, a hundred of the swarthy snakes; with vipers’ blood my nails are still besmeared, my hands with the fat of snakes. I take my viperous gloves, my snaky mitts, with which I drive the 'monster' off, I crush to atoms the 'murderer,' I make the 'flesh-devourer' budge, I make the 'bone-biter' slip away, make the fiery 'dog' cease eating up, the evil 'cur' from mangling cease, cease injuring a christian man, destroying one that is baptized. If thou shouldst injure a christian man or destroy a man that is baptized, christening perchance will injure thee, baptism will haply thee destroy.



The evil beings I send away, the kobolds [kehno] I incite away, destructive beings I force away, malicious beings I drag away, to sproutless clearings run to waste, to lands unploughed, to swampy dells, to untraversed swamps in which frogs spawn, where muck-worms crawl, to a nameless meadow, unknown by name, where from the earth no herbage sprouts, from the sward no grass exalts itself. If there thou findest not a place, thee I conjure away to the head of the waters of Sumukse, to dark Sariola, to the mist of the sea, to the haze of the lower air, to the feather-tip of a swan, right under the tongue of a pintail duck.

If that be not enough, thee I conjure away down the mouth of Antero Vipunen, down the belly of him that is rich in means, who in the earth has slept for long, long lain

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like a tree that is waterlogged. Now, go where I command, into the sleigh of a brindled cat, into the cart of a dusky cock, that the brindled cat may carry thee, that the dusky cock may hurry thee to the solid shutters of a gaol, to its creaking gate.

If that be not enough, thee I conjure away to the fleay cavern of a fox. Get into the fox's sleigh, on the gliding runners of the sledge, the fox has a low-built sleigh, easily the runners glide, the fox will draw thee to the beach and into the water roll thee down. Now, go where I command, where I command and order thee, to the end of a rolling log, to the top of a stump of juniper, into the mouth of a shrieking crow, into a croaking raven's throat, into an ermine's stony hole, to a summer-ermine's paws, into an iron-horned ram's head, into an iron stallion's mouth, into an elk's coarse-fibred flesh, the shoulder-blade of Hiisi's elk, under a summer-reindeer's tongue, into the groin of a tame reindeer, into the mouth of a running wolf, under the tail of a dusky dog, into a bear's hard bones, a black bear's hip, into casks of unripe cloudberries, inside an iron 'egg.'


If from Kalma's chambers' thou art come, from the 'huts of the spectral host' (manalaiset), from raspberry-covered heaps of stones, from the border of a 'holy field,' just make endeavours to go home to 'Kalma's heath,' to the mouldering heaps of soil, to earth that often must be moved, into which a people has fallen prone, a mighty crowd has quietly sunk, where families are enclosed, a deadman's heirs are hidden away. It is good for thee to live, pleasant for thee to pass the time in a 'house of fir,' in a 'pinewood

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nest'; like a golden cuckoo thou wilt sing, like a silver turtle-dove, in thy lofty home, in thy lovely house.


If thou hast bolted from a corpse [Kalma], into a corpse just disappear, go, Kalma, to a burial-ground, to the edge of a holy field, to the home of a man deceased, to the house of a vanished one, to the bed of one that has collapsed, under the rug of one that swooned. There it is pleasant for thee to be, delightful ’tis for thee to live; there thou hast bread of sifted flour, fat delicacies ready made, elbows enough are there and much fat flesh for a hungry man to eat, for one that longs for it to bite. A dead man will not greatly weep, one gone for ever will not cry, if in thy lust thou make a gash, take a bite in thy strong desire.


I order smarting pains away, I cause the sufferings to sink at the brink of fiery rapids, in the whirlpool of a holy stream, which by the root drags trees along, causes great-headed firs to fall, destroys the heather in its bloom, sweeps grass and all its husks away. In the rapids is a fiery reef, on the reef is a fiery bull, whose mouth is burning with fire, whose throat is aglow with flame; to Mana it will bear the pains, the sufferings to Tuonela, whence all their life they won't escape, will nevermore be fetched away.


Where I command, there get thee gone, into the hateful Ihari [v. Ilari, Inari], into the boisterous Kalari, into the violent Rutja [v. Turja] rapids, into the gurgling, foaming

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surge, into the roaring rapids, into the rapid water's swirl, into the burning whirl, which the trees fall into with their heads, oaks topple into, crown and all, upsetting firs by their root-end, broad-headed pines with spreading crown, in which the stumps of birch are smashed, the roots of aspens are snaps in two, the grass with its roots rushes noisily, and heather tumbles with its bloom.


Where I command, there get thee gone, to the fiery rapids’ centre point, into the violent Vuoksi falls, into the space between two rocks, into the awful midstream broil, whence all thy life thou won't escape, thou wilt never get away, unless by the Creator freed, without the Almighty's providence. If thou raise thy head from there or exalt thy snout, may Ukko pain thy head with sharply pointed needles, with packing-needles, or with iron hail.


Now move thy quarters, 'toad,' change, Murderer, thy dwelling-place, Monster, begin to move away, Plague of the land, to take to flight. Begone whence thou hast come, I cannot bear thee company. Be more impetuous than wind, more rapid than a waterfall. Not here is thy proper place, transfer thy tent to somewhere else.

If thou a master shouldst possess, away to thy master's seat; if thou a mistress shouldst possess, away to thy mistress's feet; to the mouth of thy brother's door, to the end of thy sister's floor, ere the close of day, ere the setting of the sun. Then on thy arrival there, when thou hast reached thy home, the abode of him that fashioned thee, thine originator's place, on thy arrival give a sign, a secret

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signal on reaching home, cause a crash like a thunder-clap, cause a glare like a lightning-flash. Kick open the courtyard door, fly down like a cock to the cattle-shed, like a chick to the dwelling-house, right down on the refuse heap. Kill the mare on the cattle-stand, crush the horse in the stall, the horned ox in the cattle-shed. Into the dung stick in its horns, on the floor let its tail fall down, its legs upon the earthen floor, on the threshold strew the hoofs, and scatter the hair upon the walls.

If little should result therefrom, draw the window-shutter back, through it transfer thyself within, into the room like a whirlwind fly, seize by the sinews of the heel, by the hindmost leg, by the narrowest heel, the masters in the farthest nook, in the door-corner the mistresses; of the master break the neck, twist this head awry, draw his eyes askew, of the mistress smash the head, and into a hook bend her fingers round.


Go to thy home, thou 'toad,' flee to thy country, Evil One, to the tongue of him that incited thee, to the palm of him that commanded thee. Dog, if thou reach thy home, thy loathsome father's house, commit a spiteful action there, perform one of corpselike hue; pass the threshold on thy hands, on thy knees through the door of the porch, to the shoulder of him that directed thee; enter within by his eye, by his guts, by the bladder, the muscles under the arm deep down to the flesh of the heart; into a bundle twist his heart, by the forelock lug him down, shake the framework of his breast, cause his head to rattle, his bones to creak, the back of his head to strike the ground till he cannot draw a breath,

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If little ensue therefrom, blow up the glowing coals, heat furiously Lempo's forge in the hollow of the begetter's heart, claw thy mother's womb, twist thy parent's paunch, in her liver set thy tent, thy cellar in her lungs, give her veins a sudden squeeze, make her blood-pipes pipe a tune. If still that has but small effect, kill the boy that's in the porch, the eldest child that's on the floor, make it fall senseless as a stump, into a hook twist round its nose, in a twinkling break its beak.


Scoundrel of Hiisi! to thy home, to thy family return. Thy relatives are greatly vexed, thy family is alarmed that thou from thy country hast gone away, that thou from thy place hast fled. For thou hast tarried long, hast vegetated long at village thresholds, at alien gates, at screeching hinges, at creaking doors. Thy home is gloomy, thy dwelling desolate, thy mother seeks about the house, thy parent sore bewails, feels a sinking of the heart, moves here and there with downcast eyes, at the gate she constantly awaits the coming home of her 'Dog.' Thy mother says, thy parent shrieks:

'My luckless boy is journeying in a houseless tract; who now will snowshoe after elks, will halter reindeer, fetter bears, put heavy bits in mouths of wolves?'

In his house thy father weeps, thy grandmother gives vent to grief, thy brother's eyes with water pour, with gory water, with tears of blood. And there thy son is lying sick, thy sore tormented son shrieks out. For the soul's departure they prepare themselves with bloody beds, with gory rugs, in bloodstained clothes, in horrid gory coats, with bloody mouths, with bloody heads, with all their hair

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embrued with blood, thy father at the maiden's spring, thy mother in Äijö's den, thy son at the fountain of Vuojela, thy daughter under the Tyrjä falls.


If thou art caused by human art, art an evil sent by any one, a disease produced by another man, an evil raised by a sorcerer, or by a scheming woman wrought, by a strong woman shaken out, return to the man that cast the spell, to the jaws of him that sang the charm, to the throat of him that pronounced the curse, to the heart of him that incited thee, to the breast of the witchcraft-using man, to the chest of him that conjured thee, before the rising of sun, the uprising of the 'morning star' (F. sun), the dawning of the god of dawn, ere the cock's crow is audible.


If, Disease, thou wert thrown by another man, by another thrown, by another brought, sent hither for reward, for the sake of money wert procured, thou now art ordered without reward, without any money to run away, without any gold to turn thy steps to thy mistress's morning meal, to the egg-scraps of thy grandmother. There, wicked pagan, eat under the bench, poke in thy head, from there don't raise it up before the flooring rots, the wall-beams get o’ergrown with mould, and the ceiling loosens overhead.


If from Metsola thou art, go seriously to Metsola, to the famous village of the woods, to sharp-sighted Tapiola, to places with knotty roots, to places of hard dry stumps, or between two stumps, beneath three birches’ roots, to the

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home of an old he-bear, to the house of an old she-bear. In there is thy buttery bed, thy milky sleeping-place, thy bacony couch, thy pillows of linen stuff. If time permit thee not to sleep, thy mind won't carelessly repose, crawl on the ground like a snake of the earth, like an adder through withered grass, run through deep forests like a bear, like an otter hurry through a lake, like a squirrel through boughs of fir, like an ermine through holes in stones.


Thee I conjure away to murky Pohjola, to the doors of the gate of Pohjola, to the homes of the 'speckled lid,' where there is neither moon nor sun, nor ever any day. ’Tis well for thee to go there, over the trees or along the ground, to rustle in among the firs, to go tumbling in among the pines; huge is the gateway of the north, hingeless the Pass of the atmosphere, for a great devil (perkele), for a small, for a tall devil to scamper through.

’Twere well for thee to slip in there, there it is well for thee to live; a sea-beach thou hast to scamper on, gravel thou hast to rattle along, fine sand to shuffle through, a lovely heath to shamble through. Raw flesh is there, cooked flesh is there, lying in pairs at the kettle's spout, there is boneless flesh, there are headless fish for a hungry man to bite, for one with an appetite to bolt. An elk is hanging from a tree, a noble reindeer has been killed, a portly ox lies roasted there, a great animal lies slaughtered there for a voracious man to eat, for one a-hungered to devour.


Thither I send thee forth, thee I command and exorcise across nine woods, nine forests and a half, to the fires of

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the sons of the North, to the flames of Lapland's bairns. Blazes are made upon the trees, upon the trees, across the ground, by which thou, stupid, canst tell the way, though a stranger, canst quickly find the track. The path is built of iron, is provided with posts of steel, so that a great or a little man or a middle-sized may also reach the hovels of the North, the ground near Lapland's Gulf. There it is well for thee to live, pleasant for thee to pass thy time; there a place is made for thee, a delicious bed to rest upon, something to eat is there set out, something to drink is quick prepared, stags of the forest have been killed, beasts of the field been put to death, there is boneless flesh to eat, the blood of game to drink. There thou canst eat without a care, canst munch according to desire, when thou art hungry gnaw the elk's coarse-fibred flesh, the fat reindeer's flanks, the fleshy armpit of a bear, or a bear's hard bones, in a pigstye sleeping all the night, in a sheep-pen all the day.


Thee I conjure away, I command and order off to great battlefields, to the slaughter-fields of men, where men are battling with the sword, in combat are fighting hand to hand. There it is well for thee to live, ’tis easy to visit thy relatives, to eat flesh raw, to drink blood warm; there blood is as high as the knee, filth on a level with the leg, there heads are (plentiful) as hills, hair (plentiful) as withered grass.


Whither I order, thither go, in front of some great cannon's mouth, down the throat of the 'copper bow,'

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down the gorge of the 'iron churn,' among the war-horse's feet, ’mong the hoofs of a battle-foal, where there is blood for thee to drink, and flesh for thee to gobble up; by eating, the food will not fall short, by drinking, the drink will not grow less, there blood is as high as the shin, red blood is the height of the knee.


If thou art from the sky, from the limit of the rainless clouds, mount up to the sky again, ascend into the air, through by the moon, and below the sun, up to the level of the sky, to the dripping clouds, to the twinkling stars, like a fire to flame, to sparkle like a spark on the orbit of the sun, on the circuit of the lunar ring, on the seven stars’ back, in the sky behind.


Thee I conjure away into moaning hills, into sighing firs, to the top of a copper hill, to a copper mountain peak, where the clouds surround the hill, a steam rolls over the stones, into an iron mountain rift, into the space between two rocks. Tormentor, shriek, O Nightmare, howl, in the deep valleys of the hills, in the fine mountain cleft, whence all thy life thou won't escape, wilt never extricate thyself.


Thee I conjure away to the Norja mountain's dell, to the flank of Turja Fell, to a snowy mountain peak, to the northern side of the hill, with thy mouth in snow, thy head in rime, thy hands in the bitter storm, there by the wind to be propelled, be buffeted by the raging storm until thou dry into a rag, become the plaything of the storm.

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Where shall I warn the pains away, where exorcise the hurts from a wretched human being's skin, from the body of a mother's son? Thither I warn the pains away, thither I force the bitter pangs, the pains to swamps, the pains to fields, the pangs to clearings now run wild, into moving gravel, into rustling sand. If they pay no heed to that surely I know another place. I'll whisk away the pains, I'll squeeze the intermittent pangs into stony rocks, into iron heaps of stone, to pain the stones, to torment the flags. A stone weeps not at pain, nor does a flag bewail its sufferings, though many should be laid on it, be flung on it unstintingly.


I warn the pains away, I force the evil pains inside a variegated stone, into the side of a bulky flag; I'll break the stone in two, the flagstone into three; into the water I'll roll the pains, down under the deep sea waves, into the skin of a kindly seal, who to the deep will bear the pains, will float them to the open sea, or under the inky mud, the dust of other times, that there they may remain so long as there is neither moon nor sun, nor human beings in the world, nor any dwellers under heaven.


Sickness, if thou wert brought by wind, brought by the wind, by the water dragged, art a present from the chilly wind, art whisked here by an icy blast, take, Wind, what thou hast brought, what thou hast given, Chilly Blast; into thy cradle take the pain, place it below thy powerful wing, that thou mayst hurry it away to creaking weathercocks, to

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whistling winds, to hissing clouds, to be rocked by winds, to be handled by the clouds.


Thee I conjure away to other, to foreign lands, to Sunku's great farmyards, to the adjoining Russian land. There it is well for thee to live, pleasant for thee to pass thy time, in a pig-stye sleeping all the night, in a sheep-pen all the day. If there thou canst not find a place, go there where I command, to other, to distant lands, to other waters that are black, which by the eye have not been seen, were never heard of by the ear, to priestless places, un-christened lands, where thou’lt be heard of never more, whence thou wilt never show thyself.


If from the water thou hast rolled, into the water roll forsooth, creep on the ground like a little snake, like an otter rush along the shore, to the unstable sea, to Lapland's ample bay [v. to Väinö's open sea], into an iron burbot's mouth, into the teeth of a steely pike, who will eat thee bones and all, with thy bones will crunch thee up; to the eye of a blue sik-fish, to the tail of a salmon red, that travels in the waves, swims in the rapids’ foam, dwells under swirling pools, whirls round below the stream. The sik will bear thee to the deep, will float thee to the open sea, far will the salmon carry thee, transport thee further off, down under the deep waves, down on the inky mud, where not a breath of wind is felt, no ripples on the water move.

If thou raise up thy head from there, Ukko will split thy head with a golden club, with a silver wedge.

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If from the water thou art come, I exorcise thee far away to the clear surface of the sea, to the endless waves. There it is luck for thee to live, pleasant for thee to move about, there the wind will rock thee to and fro, the windward shore will cradle thee, the swell of the sea will make thee sway, the gentle water make thee shake. The wind affords security there, a wave will drive towards thee a perch, the small sik-fish at thy side thou’lt eat, and the salmon that are close at hand. Three swelling waves are on the sea, at the head of each swelling wave—a fire, in front of each fire there stands a man, in each hand he holds a spit, on the spit there is roasted flesh, here is an elk and here an ox, and there the head of a whale. These are the best of roasted meats for a hungry man to eat, for one with a crave to gobble up.


Sternly I warn the pains away from this human being's skin. May the pains be shot, may the torments sink into the cup of Kivutar, into the box of Vammatar, into the bed of Vaivatar, down on the pillows of Päivätär. If there no place is to be found, may the torments into the water roll, may the suffering subside into the sea's dark depths, to the lower parts of Saarva lake, nine fathoms deep, whence they will never more escape, will be heard of never more in this long period of time, in all my length of days.



Now move to where I ordered thee, where I conjured and ordered thee, to pass thy weeks and spend thy months

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till I shall come to let thee go, till I appear to liberate, shall come to carry thee away, myself arrive to let thee loose with nine rams born of a single ewe, with nine bulls, calves of a single cow, nine stallions, foals of a single mare.


Begone to where I ordered thee, commanded thee, exhorted thee, whence unless loosed thou’lt ne’er get loose, unless set free wilt ne’er be free, while this world lasts, while the Lord's moon shines. No liberator liberates thee, no releaser set thee free unless I come to liberate, myself approach to set thee free in company with my three dogs, with five or six of my 'woolly tails,' with seven white-collared dogs, with my eight hounds, with stallions nine, brought forth by a single mare.


68:1 Perhaps the variegated stone and the grindstone mean the moon and sun, for in Finnish riddles 'the golden grindstone, a tin whorl,' is used for the sun.

70:1 i.e. in a serried line like the solid slope of a hill or a long bank of cloud.

74:1 The last four lines refer to a place of burial where the ground is often dug up.

75:1 i.e. From mud-banks in the water where fish live.

77:1 As the past tense is used in the similes, perhaps it implies that the exorcist, while pronouncing the words, threw salt and sand into water and wax into the fire, as a symbolical act.

77:2 i.e. drink them with readiness and avidity, as thou wouldst drink brandy, ale, etc.

80:1 On account of the horse's height.

83:1 i.e. I shall try to inspire my nature or inner man.

83:2 Var. to help the man that throws the lots.


We have now to deal more especially with the text of the Magic Songs, to explain their purport, to examine their form, and compare them with the charms of the Eastern Finns, the Russians, and other neighbouring nations. The text here translated is a large part of the collection of Magic Songs edited and published by Dr. Lönnrot in 1880, under the title of Suomen Kansan muinaisia Loitsurunoja, 'Bygone Magic Songs of the Finns.' He did not collect them all himself; some were taken down in the last century, and a very few perhaps even earlier. They were found chiefly in the east and north of Finland, especially in those localities where the peasants belong to the Orthodox Church. Unfortunately the exact place where each was collected is not specified, as the editor utilised sometimes as many as twenty variants to form what he considered a complete whole. His main reason for doing so was that no singer ever gives another man a magic song complete; partly from forgetfulness; partly for fear lest it should lose its efficacy if he gave it entire. Another reason was, that where one singer uses a particular charm or song for one disease, such as rickets, another recites it for itch or for

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rash. This doubtless diminishes the value of Lönnrot's edition. It is impossible to note the changes that have taken place in a given area during the last hundred years or more, or to trace the diffusion of a well-marked type from a definite centre. The form too suffers; none or only a very few of the songs are exactly in the shape in which they were sung—though I am not sure that this last defect is of very vital importance. The singers, through failure of memory, did not recite them precisely the same on each occasion, but unconsciously made small changes. Having a considerable stock of songs, all of the same general character, in their memories, the phrases of one song would often get transported to another. There may have been a belief that each song was a genuine formula to which nothing could be added and from which nothing, not even three words, could be deducted without losing its efficacy. But in practice it was otherwise. No half-civilised people has any idea of absolute exactitude, and any fair approximation to a given type of incantation or exorcism would undoubtedly pass muster. In a low stage of culture, too, mere semblance and make-believe often stands on the same level as reality; the shadow passes current for the substance. If every one believed that each magic formula was invariable, such a pretence would amply cover or counterbalance any irregularity the exorcist might commit in his recitations.

According to their contents, Lönnrot classified and arranged the Magic Songs most minutely under 233 headings. The general formulæ, common to many charms, are given separately under eighteen heads, from § 1 to § 18; words of releasing or healing power under forty heads, § 19 to § 58; fifty-one formulæ of a very varied kind from § 59

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to § 109; seventy-three prayers, § 110 to § 182; fifty-one origins, § 183 to § 233. Under each of these 233 heads Lönnrot has often given a number of variants, distinguished by the letters of the alphabet. Mainly for reasons of space, though I have given specimens under each head, I have curtailed the number of variants, yet those I have translated amount to 639 magic songs, which is amply sufficient to allow one to form an idea of the whole collection. To facilitate reference I have numbered the different headings consecutively; in the original each of the five great subdivisions is numbered separately, so that after § 18 my numbering no longer coincides with the Finnish text; so too in the variants, I have lettered them, even after omitting some, in their proper alphabetical order, regardless of whether they agree with the original or not.

1. Of the 'preliminary' formulæ the exorcist repeated one or more when about to begin operations, especially when healing the sick. 2. The 'defensive' formulæ were directed against sorcerers, witches, and other malevolent persons, and were specially necessary before setting out on a journey. 3. Those 'against envy' prevented the envious from spoiling the good work of the exorcist by their evil glances and other intrigues. 4. The vengeance formulæ were to frighten away every kind of antagonist. 5. The formulæ 'to discover the cause' were used in charming the sick, when the origin of the malady was uncertain. 6. With the 'reparation for harm' formulæ the exorcist or wizard, when dealing with a contusion, ailment, or snake-bite, orders the person who caused all the pain and suffering to come and cure the sufferer. 7. The formulæ 'against inflammation' were useful in cases of snake-bite, contusions, and inflammatory wounds. 8. 'Expulsion' charms were available

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for many complaints and diseases, especially in those attributed to bewitchment. 9. A 'posting' formula was recited after an expulsion or an exorcism formula, and under the same conditions. 10. 'A pain or sickness' formula was serviceable in allaying pains, smarts, and aches. 11. The 'reproaching' formula could be used in case of snake-bite, toothache, and injuries caused by stone, fire, iron, frost, etc. 12. 'Falling into an ecstasy' was a formula for steeling the nerves while conjuring the sick and removing obstacles. 13. A 'distress' formula was of service in acute pain and in sudden attacks. 14. 'Boasting' was efficacious in frightening away sorcerers, witches, the envious, and other opponents; in steeling one's faculties, proclaiming one's power, and gaining complete confidence. 15. Formulæ 'to still violence' were good for assuaging severe pain in sickness. 16. 'Menacing' was used after an expulsion formula, if the later had proved of no avail. 17. By an 'exorcism,' disease, pain, curses, spell-sent injuries of every description, were removed elsewhere. 18. After the recitation of a formula 'to make fast,' the evil, which has been exorcised away, was obliged to settle down in a given locality and there to remain motionless. 1

According to Dr. Lönnrot it is hard to say in what order the charms or magic songs were recited, for if there was any order at all it was not everywhere uniform. But if the patient was suffering from a wound or open sore, a 'vapour' formula (§ 87) was repeated to prevent the hot steam from hurting it; then, had it not been done previously, the 'preliminary and defensive' formulas as well as those 'against envy.' These were followed, if the ailment or

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injury was of a known kind, such as burns, frost-bites, stitch, pleurisy, colic, rickets, rash, cancer, toothache, bites from snakes or animals, cuts from iron, contusions from stones or timber, by the recitations of their respective 'origins.' When the origin was not known the formula 'to discover the cause' was said in order to discover it. Then they continued the repetition in no particular order, just as the exorcist remembered or regarded as most useful, the 'words of releasing and healing power,' the 'reparation of harm,' 'against inflammation,' and expulsion' formulæ, or any other from § 9 to § 18.

The 'origins,' it should be observed, have nothing to do with the origin or cause of the disease or injury from which a patient was suffering. To ascertain the latter, the wizard usually had recourse to divination (§ 59 a). But when once he had learnt this he was able to recite the 'origin' or genealogy of the disease, or of the cause of harm, as glibly and circumstantially as any Garter-King-at-Arms. This 'origin' or pedigree was of an opprobrious, derisive, or contemptuous nature. The object of the wizard was twofold. After describing the ancestry of the cause of harm, and showing how ignominious, contemptible, and disgusting it was, while the cause of harm was made out to be a good-for-nothing, cowardly, and feeble wretch, the wizard tried either to shame it into repairing the evil it had committed, or to make it clear that such a helpless villain could have no chance of success against himself, who feigned at times to be the son of Ukko, and was amply protected by defensive clothing. The recital of the origin was of itself sufficient to banish a spirit of evil; 'by pronouncing a deep origin, words that are handed down, a needless evil is expelled' (210 a).

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The work of healing was usually performed in the vapour-bath house, which was heated as secretly as possible, so that no envious or malevolent person should get wind of it and injure the operation. The most suitable wood for heating the vapour was obtained from trees struck by lightning, or that had been washed ashore by the wind (169 b); but in cases of childbirth it was preferable to use splinters cut from the hindmost beam of the barn; and if love was to be excited, then wood was taken from two trees that had grown together, or had twisted round each other like the tendril of hops round a pole. The water was drawn from a stream flowing northwards, especially from the bubbly part of it if rapids happened to be near at hand. Water from a natural spring was also of service if scrapings of gold or silver had been dropped into it thrice, a little each time. This was called 'buying the water.' For a bath-switch they took triple-twigged sprigs of birch from the land of three or nine rent-paying farms. These were termed 'exorcism-twigs.' When it was a matter of throwing a 'love spell,' the bath-switch was made of twigs growing at a place where three paths crossed, and in the centre of the switch were inserted three root-shoots that had grown on the north side of a tree. 1 In the text we also find that a bath-switch should be taken 'from a copse, near three rapids, from the highest birch, and that wood of the rowan-tree should be used for heating the bath' (133 c). Or the bath-switch may be broken off at the brink of three angry rapids, while the bath is to be heated with juniper from a sandy heath. The water is to be carried from the Vento stream in a cup taken from near the moon, in a ladle belonging to the sun (169 b).

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To allow folklorists to compare in some small degree the charms and exorcisms of surrounding peoples with those of the Finns I bring forward a small selection. As those of the Esthonians, collected and translated into German by Kreutzwald and Neus, are fairly accessible, and at any rate are of the same character and in the same metre as the Finnish Magic Songs, it is not necessary to reproduce them here. So too the few prose charms of the Vepsas, given by Ujfalvy, are so entirely Russian that they need not be transcribed. Though hardly worth giving, since they all belong to a very late period, a few Swedish formulæ are appended. Unfortunately I have never met with any large collection of Swedish charms, and so cannot give better specimens than those below. Russian charms and exorcisms are extremely numerous, some of them very lengthy, and too long to quote. To omit them here is of less importance, however, as they all seem to bear traces of literary origin, though the ideas they embody may be much older. I have therefore given a few of the shorter ones from a single collection. In 1894 Dr. Kobert of Dorpat published 347 Lettish charms, of which I have taken about a fifth. The post-classical examples, mostly from Marcellus, are interesting, as they help to explain certain common features in Lettish, Russian, and—probably by derivation—Finnish exorcisms. The eleven Mordvin charms are interesting, but some of them have been unmistakably influenced by Russian formulæ. All the Čeremisian and Votiak examples seem also to be built up on an idea borrowed from the Russians, though, as I have never seen any Cuvaš or Tatar formulæ, the idea may have been taken from a Turkish-speaking people.

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Against illness caused by a fall.

1. Sovereign lady of the earth, Ultáva! Perhaps Little John has fallen on thy hand or foot, perhaps thou art angry with him, enraged at him. Or maybe (he has fallen) on thy son, the great lord; perhaps he has been knocked, perhaps thy son is enraged at Little John. Look! we are giving him a present, 40 lbs. of copper, 40 lbs. of silver, and 100 rubles in money. We will take a 3-kopek piece and scratch it with a knife as a present to thy son. Perhaps Little John has fallen on thy daughter, the lady, on thy daughter's hand or foot. It may be she has been knocked, and perhaps she is enraged at Little John. We will give her a present, we will buy (her) a copper ring.

Sovereign lady of the dwelling-place, Yurtava! Look! perhaps Little John has fallen on thy hand or foot, perhaps thou art angry with him, perhaps enraged at him.

I know not where Little John fell. An otter's claw will seek for the place where he fell. Get to the place, look for it! I am sending the otter's claw to look for the place where Little John fell. Don't trouble thyself about the water, don't trouble about the bridge, thou swimmer over broad waters, thou wader through deep mud, only mind that thou lookest for the place. Look! on the place where Little John fell is a white egg, a white hen laid it. We must take water, break the egg in it, mix it with the water and wash the child in the water.

Against burns.

2. It is not I that blow, God is blowing. A handless fellow lifted the firewood, a footless fellow carried it here,

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a blind fellow went into the water, a breathless fellow blew up the fire.

3. On the hearth is a black girl, she wears a black cloth on her head, black clothes, a black girdle, black gloves on her hands, black bast-shoes on her feet, black bast-laces on her feet, black leggings on her legs.

4. Tokhantoyitsa, the black girl, carries her wood here, carries running water, mitigates the burns, blows the burns away. When cold water begins to boil (of itself), then will he (the patient) be burnt.

Against frost-bite.

5. On a dust-heap is a white old man, he wears a white cap on his head, white clothes, a white belt, white gloves on his hands, white trousers, white bast-shoes on his feet, white bast-laces on his feet, white leggings on his legs.

Against worms.

6. Tatar plant, the thunder-nettle! I have come to you as a guest. Sergei's cow has got the worms. In case you don't get rid of them I shall visit you again. Now I shall only tear off your top, but I shall come again, should you not get rid of them, and tear you up by the root, I shall even dry up your roots.

Against snake-bite.

7. Great snake, noxious snake! why have you bitten this animal? why was it necessary for you to do so?—'The old snake sent me to devour the animal.'—'Its flesh is not dainty, its blood is not pleasant.'

Against violent pain in the joints, rheumatism.

8. Separate the painful illness, the rheumatism from the marrow in their bones, from their bodies and muscles,

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their flesh and blood, their dark-red liver, and from the brain in their heads! Separate the rheumatism from their cheeks, faces, eyes, eyebrows, and cheek-bones! I separate the rheumatism from their breasts, breast-bones, hands, wrists, and from the inside of their wrists. I separate the rheumatism from the inside of their pubis and from its marrow, from the roots of the hair and the tips of the hair. Assist us and help us, Niške-pas! I drive away the rheumatism. Niške-pas drives away, but Vere-pas separates.

Against imprecation.

9. I heal from curses by blowing. There is a large, large, large hill; on the top of the hill is an apple-tree; its roots stretch round the earth; at the top are its branches, at the end of the branches its leaves, and between the leaves are apples. When the cores of the apples get counted, when its roots in the earth get counted, then let the curse hold good, then let it return with a noise! There is a large, large, large field; in the great field is a well, its water gushes forth like silver, the uppermost part of its water flows like gold, over the earth it casts its sand and dregs. When these are gathered together in one place and counted and brought (back) to their place, then let the imprecation hold good, then let it return with a noise.

Against gripes, colic.

10. Behold! I dash to pieces the man's gripes, I cut his colic to pieces. Grandfather Sorokin, grandfather Vid´aša, Mikhaila's wife, grandmother, aunt Sekla, Gava's wife and daughter-in-law, the seven wizards, see, these are blowing and they tell me (to blow). With your favour I blow and I spit. From the other side of the great water a great old woman has come, she has blown (the illness) away.

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To staunch blood.

11. On the shore of the great water is a white stone; in the stone are three girls on a white piece of felt. One sews with thread, the second with silk, the third with silver tinsel. She will strengthen Vasya's heart, will staunch his blood. When blood comes from the end of a dog's member, then let it come from this place. 1


Against bewitchment and fascination.

1. If, after stringing forty-one millstones on each eyelash, he is able to see with his eyes, only then may he be able to bewitch!—If, after stringing an 80 lb. weight on each eyelash, he is able to throw a glance, only then may he be able to fascinate.—If he with his uvula can lick, set up and animate a clod lying on the ground, only then may he be able to glance with eyes of bewitchment.

To bewitch a dog.

2. When this spotted dog shall have counted his own hairs, only then may he fly at me barking.—If this spotted dog can thread and hang on each hair an 80 lb. weight, and fly at me with barks, only then may he fly at me with barks.

To bewitch a person.

3. As the cold earth lies heavy, so may also Vasili's body become heavy!—As a great stone lies heavy on the ground, may Vasili's body, becoming heavy, also lie!

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To give relief in sickness.

4. As a feather lies, so may Vasili's body become light!—As a hops flower lies, so may Vasili's body become lighter and set itself in motion!—As an owl with puffed-up feathers lies, so also may Vasili's body stand forth swelling (with health).

To gain abundance of corn.

5. As (the wind) brings snow in heaps and deposits it at the barn, so may (it) deposit corn in heaps. As ants bring their ant-heaps near here, so also may corn be brought near here!—As the sun, after making the circuit of the sky and reaching its place, stays there, so also let the corn come and stay.—When a stone melts, only then may (the corn) come to an end! 1

Against hoarseness.

6. The morning sun rises and approaches; if he (the sorcerer), stroking the sunrise with both hands, can lick it with his tongue and push it back in the winking of an eye, only then may he bewitch and throw spells upon me.

Against a snake's glance, i.e. swelling of the fingers.

7. Whenever the 'snake's glance,' chancing to be on the point of a sharp steel sword, can jump about; only then at that very instant may it seize me by the finger.

To staunch a flow of blood.

8. When he (the bewitcher), by cutting with a sickle the red blood of the red earth, can cause it to flow in an instant; only then may my blood flow!

p. 13

As the red of dawn melts away, so may it (the evil) melt away.

Against colic in horses.

9. From the gold blast-furnace issues the mass of gold throwing off sparks with a crackling noise. If the Colic with a golden ladle can lay it on (his own) bare heart and bare liver, and with patient endurance can quietly take a seat, only then, at that very moment, may it attack the horse.

Against burns.

10. Fire, like a dry tree-stump in flames, comes rolling this way; whenever it can rush into the river Ut, can char the river Ut, reduce it to ashes, swallow and drink it up; only then, at that very moment, may burns overwhelm me.

11. As butter melts, as honey melts, as the morning mist melts away, as the morning hoar-frost melts away, so may they (the burns) melt away in an instant.

Against an illness inflicted by the Russians.

12. When it is possible for a man to bring forty-one paths on forty-one hills to one place and tie them in one knot; only then may he bewitch and throw spells upon me.

Against snake-bite.

13. On the top of a high hill is a golden trough, in the golden trough is a golden cup, in the golden cup is a silk skein; when a snake can in a moment rush in there, bite, seize, devour, and swallow it up, only then may he be able to bite me!

p. 14

When a long deceased person causes a child to pine away.

14. Whenever it is possible to twist a cord out of one's own gut, to make a ladder of one's own ribs, to ascend to the great God, to enter through the golden portal, and dashing (him) to pieces to eat up and drink up the son of the mother of the great God, the child rocking in its cradle, without saying, 'Dear me!' only then may he devour my wee bairnie. 1


Against bewitchment.

1. When you can support with your forehead the ball of the prophet Elias, then may you be able to damage me!

When you have laid your children in the treasure-vault of the emperor, and so filled it, then may, etc.

When you have made bread of the claws of the black cat and eaten it, then, etc.

When you have given a name to the nameless finger (i.e. the ring finger), then, etc.

2. When he (the sorcerer) can damage the fish at the bottom of seventy seas, then may he, etc.

When he can give a contrary direction for a minute to all the rotating mill-wheels of this world, then, etc.

When he can damage a ship's anchor, then, etc.

When he can damage the eyes of seventy different kinds of fish, then, etc.

Against evil eye.

3. When the bow made from an eyelash is shot with and hits the mark, then let him bewitch this man with his eyes!

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4. Is it a green eye that has thrown the glance? Is it a black eye that has thrown the glance?

If they can dry up with an evil glance that lasts a minute the needles of a fir that grows in the forest, then may they also dry up this man with a glance!

5. When the evil glance hits the moon, then let the evil glance strike this man also.

To turn a person's senses.

6. As the moon rolling along leaves its mother, and as he returns to her, so also may this man turn to me!

7. As the needles of a fir growing in the forest touch each other, so also let this man meet me!

As a man's head turns towards the Emperor, so let the head of this person turn towards me!

Spell to damage the farmyard.

8. When you have spat on a kopek piece, you throw it into the farmyard of the enemy, saying:

'For this man, let there remain a place no bigger than this kopek!'

Then you spit on a piece of silver money, and throw it in with the same words.

Counter spell to the above.

9. When he can make into a plough the kopek thrown in with an incantation, and when he, after ploughing, (can get enough grain) to fill the stomach, then may he be able to damage this house!

Against incendiary fires.

10. When he can set on fire an anchor lying at the bottom of the sea, then may he be able to set on fire (my house, for example)!

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When he can ignite the sand lying at the bottom of a river, then, etc.

When he in one minute burns the world into a mountain (of ashes), and makes it again as it was, then, etc.

When he sets on fire the water of the mill-sluice in spring, then, etc.

Against bleeding.

11. When blood flows from the broken-off edge of a golden knife, then may the blood (of this man) flow! When the blood, etc., of a silver knife, etc.

When the blood, etc., of a copper knife, etc.

When the blood, etc., of a steel knife, etc.

Against swellings.

12. When a swelling forms on the tip of a snake's sting, then let a swelling form on this (man).

When a swelling forms on the tip of the horn of a one-year-old sheep, then, etc.

When a swelling forms on a lizard, etc.

When a swelling forms on a wasp, etc.

Along the three roads by which it came, may it also retire!

13. If he, after making a golden ladder, can climb in a minute to heaven, then let the swelling form!

If he, after making a silver ladder, etc.

If he, after making a copper ladder, etc.

Against stomach-ache.

14. When the heart of a pine-tree is attacked by stomachache, then may the stomach-ache attack this man!

When the heart of a birch, etc.

When the heart of a fir, etc,

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When the heart of a Siberian pine, etc.

When the heart of a maple, etc.

When the heart of an elm, etc.

When the anchor lying at the bottom of a ship, etc.

Against the skin disease called 'mushroom.'

15. When on the bottom of the ladle 'mushroom' forms, then let the 'mushroom' attack this man!

When at the bottom of a pot the 'mushroom,' etc.

When on an anvil, etc.

When fishing.

16. When the fish hears the sound of carding the wool of the dead, then let the fish notice the fish-traps which I have set.

When the fish sees the shadow of a dead man, then, etc.

When the fish sees the cross on the church, then, etc.

When the fish sees the ashes thrown out of the bathhouse, etc.

As water turns according to the direction of the current of the sluice, so let (the fish also) return and enter the fish-traps!

As the sun returns, so, etc.

As the moon returning from its mother comes, so, etc.

Against bewitchment.

17. When you kill your own dear children, then damage this man!

I tread on seventy-seven devils and put them under my feet; seventy-seven stars are above my head: when you damage (by spells) all these, then, etc.

When you reverse the twelve thunderbolts, then, etc.

Otherwise I give this man nothing.

p. 18

Against the evil eye.

18. After you have fetched sand from the bottom of seventy-seven seas and twisted it into a cord, when you succeed in climbing up to the sky, then may the evil eye fall on this man!

Against calumny.

19. When you can keep this world in darkness, then may your tongue calumniate this man!

When you can make the navel of the earth bloody, then, etc.

Against stomach-ache.

20. When you can keep seventy-seven vapour-bathrooms hot, then, Stomach-ache, attack this man!

Against dropsy.

21. When you engender a seed of sickness on the point of a needle made of the best steel, on the blade of a steel axe, then let it also be formed in this man!

Against rupture.

22. If you succeed in living after you have ruptured seventy-seven anvils, then attack this man also!

If you succeed in letting yourself down into the opening of the stove, then, etc.

Against a disease in horses.

23. If you succeed in seizing the wooden club, the stick with which the fir is knocked, seize this horse!

If you succeed in seizing the staff of 'the producer of cold,' then, etc.

p. 19

Against any sort of illness.

24. I do not give (the sick man) 'to the evil one,' though he is bewitched.

When you succeed in eating a white-hot stone, then eat up this sick person!

If you succeed in eating red-hot steel, thunderbolts, then, etc.

If you succeed in travelling with jokes and laughter after you have mended the badly-broken pole and the badly-smashed worm for distilling brandy, and united the ends; after you have made a black bear into a horse for yourself and harnessed it in front; after you have made a black snake into a whip and taken it in your hand, then, etc.

25. In the sky is the 'pillar of the sky.' If you know the measure and length of this sky pillar, then rove about eating and drinking with twelve evil spirits (ịbir), twelve devils, twelve stomach-aches, twelve agues! Otherwise I will not give up this sick man!

If you divert from their course the full sun and the full moon, if you know the number and measure of the stars of heaven, if you can squeeze them in your fist, then rove about eating this man! 1


Against cough.

1. Cough! get out I (N.'s) cough, don't scratch (N.'s) body! Cough! get out I (N.'s) cough, don't scratch the bones! (N.'s) cough, don't scratch the heart! Go along the sea, scratch the stones of the sea, scratch the sea-sand; they are more savoury than (N.'s) body! Don't come into

p. 20

the house, for dogs and cats will tear thee to pieces, dogs and cats will rend thee in pieces.

Against stitch in the side.

2. Cease, 'Fire,' from tearing, from pricking, 'wild fire'! go through the earth! Cease from tearing, from pricking, wild fire! go pricking through the earth! Remain still, like a quiet fellow, in the name of the Father, etc.

3. In the sea there is a four-cornered white post—it is hacked into fine, very fine, pieces. God the Father . . . Amen. (Repeat thrice.)

4. The stitch pricks—I am in agony! Let three Pērkoni (lightnings) strike it! ✠ The stitch pricks—I am in agony! Let nine Pērkoni strike him! ✠ The stitch pricks—I am in agony! Let three times nine Pērkoni strike him! ✠

As many crosses are to be made as the number of Pērkoni mentioned.

Against stomach-ache.

5. Three balls of thread roll over a high hill—one is red, the second black, the third white. Roll, roll, I shall surely wind you up—first the red, then the black, then the white one. (Repeat thrice.) Our Father which art, etc.

Against pains in the bones and muscles.

6. I took a pine-splinter—I stabbed the devil. A black dog ran past—it bit off the pain; a black cat ran past—it bit through the pain; a hare ran past—it bit through the pain.

Against flux.

7. Flee, flee, Flux! I shall try to catch you, I shall overtake you, I shall catch you, I shall strike you, I shall whip you, I shall tear you to pieces with an iron harrow!

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8. Stand up, Flux! stand up, Flux! I shall cure you. Icy flux! I shall cure you; cold Flux! I shall cure you; hot Flux! I shall cure you; pricking Flux, running Flux, pricking Flux! I shall cure you. I shall draw you through nine beds, through nine doors, through nine fallow fields; I shall draw thee through nine unused fields, I shall bind you to a creaking aspen. There you shall lie, there you shall creak, there you will no more disturb people's health.

Against fever.

9. Ice in the well, ice in the ditch, hot water behind the threshold; mutton is boiling in the kettle, icy wood is below it. A blue goat is lying on a stubble-field with its feet stretched out. Go away to hell, go away to hell with all the pains! A red maiden is wading through the sea with a white staff in her hand.

10. Go out, you flabby Fever, to the bridge of the great river; look down at the river. On the river five red maidens are dancing on pieces of ice—you are looking in that direction, remain there! The maidens disappear, the pieces of ice melt, the flabby fever vanishes. God the Father . . .

Against skin disease called 'holy virgins.'

11. Look, where blue smoke is rising from the foundation of the vapour-bath house, there is a tiny man with a black cap on his head; look, where blue smoke is ascending from the foundation of the bath-house, there is a little black man with a black cap on his head; look, where blue smoke is ascending from the foundation of the bath-house, there is a little black man with a black cap on his head.

12. A little, little virgin who scourges the children; five

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maidens in the sea are spinning a silk thread; a green, a blue fire (appears) through the foundations of the bathhouse. Quit, holy Virgin, the body (of N.)! Go into the deep sea, upon the sail of a large boat, on the broken boat of a Lauma (= witch).

13. Flee, flee, holy virgins! I shall chase you, I shall overtake you, I shall catch you, I shall whip you, I shall beat you; to me belongs the dwelling-room, the table, the bed, and the cradle.

14. Three virgins in white stockings and black shoes wade through the sea; they find an (ignited) lime-tree stump; they spit on it, extinguish it, and it becomes as black as it was; with God's help it heals.

15. Three virgins come to my hands: one has red shoes, red socks, a red mantle, a red brooch, red gloves, and red kerchief; the second had a yellow mantle, yellow brooch, yellow kerchief, yellow gloves, yellow shoes, and a yellow apron; the third had a white mantle, white brooch, white kerchief, white shoes, and white socks. Away, away, away from my hands! (Repeat thrice.) Our Father, etc.

Against a stye in the eye.

16. A red cart, red horse, red driver, red whip, a red dog runs from behind. Disappear like the waning moon, like an old fuzz-ball! (Repeat thrice.)

Against toothache.

17. (N.), it is not thy teeth, but the maiden's, that give pain. Let her take the painful tooth, creep into 3× 9 mole-holes and bury the 3 × 9 pains in God's deep earth! It will restore to health, it will do you no harm. God of the earth, close up thine earth; let that which is hidden,

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sleep; that which is hidden, rot; that which rots, disappear; what disappears cannot return! Amen, besides let God the Father . . . help. Our Father, which . . .

Against bleeding.

18. Three red virgins are making a blood-dam. Pērkons rumbles, launches lightning, and closes up the blood-dam.

19. Three red virgins run upon the sea, naked with their clothes off; three bricks: one is red, one black, one white. No swelling, no pain, no bleeding! In the name, etc.

20. Five virgins wade through a sea of blood,—wade and bind, wade and bind, wade and bind. A copper dam, a steel sluice, veins like strings, a stone lies before them!

21. Three times nine virgins wade through a sea of blood; the further they wade, the drier (it gets); the further they wade, the drier (it gets).

22. I travel by day, I travel by night—over high hills, through deep valleys; the hills collide, the valleys fill up. Let it (the blood) become as hard as iron, as steel!

23. A black raven flies through the air, blood trickles; then the great Mār´a (= Maria, a goddess of luck) ran up and arrested the raging stream.

24. A black raven flies through the air, blood trickles. Take, Mār´ina, a golden besom and sweep up the blood of the black raven.

25. The black snake flew through the air, spilling black blood—spilling black blood, biting the slender nettles. The swamps are full of black birches, the fields are full of the bones of fallen cattle; the sea is full of ice-heaps, the fields are full of ploughmen! Collect, O sea, your ice—dear mother, your ploughmen!

26. The alder grows in the forest, the alder grows in the

p. 24

forest; from the alder flows blood, from the alder flows blood. Let the blood of the alder be as hard as stone—through Jesus Christ.

27. Associate with the brown stone, with the black alder; by doing so no blood will flow!

Against burns.

28. Three holy virgins sit behind the fire, a sheep's head is cooking above them; alder-wood, lime-wood. Let the wounds become as soft as lime-wood.

29. A red cock is running round the fire. Take, dear Mār´a, a besom, set to work and sprinkle, set to work and sprinkle, thereby let the evil disappear like a spark.

30. An old woman ascended the hill, smoking an oaken pipe; old crows extinguished the coals, the raven plied the bellows.

Against snakes.

31. A little old man goes through the swamp; he has a copper belt round his waist and a steel tube in his hand. Flee, adders! flee, adders! They will cut you in two crossways with the steel, they will hew you into nine pieces.

32. Don't sleep in the feather-grass, in the feather-grass, in the feather-grass! Swamps and forests belong to you, the broad fatherland to me. You ought to avoid the shadow of man, the ox-yoke, the handles of the plough, the shadow of cattle! You have as many sins as the stars of heaven; as many sins as the pebbles in the sea.

33. The snake goes through the feather-grass with a white bar on its back; it has the bar, I have a feather-grass. Let the (bitten) place become as soft as feather-grass.

34. Big snake, little snake! sleep in the vine-bush, don't

p. 25

bite the cattle or the little children; bite the brown stone—it does not grow, it will not swell up, it will not rot.

35. Vipu, vapu (these words are supposed to characterise a serpentine movement), 'creeper through moss,' 'fat sausage,' 'smooth slimy skin,' 'variegated garter,' 'ant's shadow,' 'leash' in the heat of the sun.

36. Three adders have crept into a fine dense thicket: one is white, another variegated, the third brown. Open, copper gate.! that all may crawl through.

37. The 'toothless' lies in the willow thicket. 'Toothless!' come out of the willow thicket. Let the pain rot like a willow leaf! Let the swelling subside like a heap of wool!

Against sprains.

38. A billy-goat jumps over the fence, encounters an old harrow,—upsets it,—let flesh turn towards flesh, let bone press against bone, let health turn towards health; the ailment falls on the field as an old harrow falls to pieces.

39. Bone to bone, soft part to soft part, sinew to sinew, and red blood through the middle.

40. An old man walks along the street, leads by the hand a white mare, crosses hills, crosses valleys—the hills break, the valleys break, oaks break, steel breaks. The hills collide, the valleys collide; iron melts, the steel melts; become as level as the floor. No groan, no moan, no swelling;—become as well as it was.

Against tumours, buboes.

41. I hew a willow, I hew a willow, I hew a willow—the lime-tree shot forth between the roots of the oak. Let this man's body revive like the lime leaves, let the swelling of dropsy vanish; stone (is its) name.

p. 26

Against swellings.

42. Thrice nine red waggons are passing along the street, thrice nine horses run before them, thrice nine drivers are in front; red caps, red clothes, red whips, red gloves, red cord. They let their whips crack, they let the swelling, the bulging, altogether disappear, that suppresses (N.'s) malady, that suppresses (N.'s) malady.

43. Thrice nine Pērkoni emerge from the sea with thrice nine iron arrows—they dash the swelling under a stone,—the man remains in his former state of health.

44. A black man sits on the stump of a lime-tree, (he has) an ash besom: dip in and sprinkle, dip in and sprinkle, dip in and sprinkle that the swelling may be suffocated. Amen.

Against boils, abscesses.

45. An old man is walking along the sea with a steel sword in his hand; he cuts the boils in two. The boil runs into the deep sea, into the deep sea-sand, into the deep sea-gravel;—there you must spin, there you must twist.

46. The boil is spinning between the door: there it spins, there it twists. Hurry into the forest to the thickly-ramified willow-bush—there you must spin, there must you twist; your grandfathers are there, your grandmothers are there,—there you must spin, there must twist. God the Father . . .

47. The little old mother sits on the hill with a little basket in her hand; in it is a ball of yarn; the ball unwinds, the boil discharges itself, vanishes, passes into dust like a fuzz-ball.

48. The little old mother sits on the hill with a ball of thread in her bosom, a little dog is at her side; the ball

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rolls to the bottom, the little dog retrieves it. These are the words against boils that are appropriate for (N.). A little white stone in the sea, a little white stone in the sea, a diamond knitting-needle in the middle. Make haste (N.), exert yourself quickly to receive your health.

49. I am a woman of iron, I have a tongue of steel: I split the boil into nine pieces like an old mill-stone. Let it vanish, let it turn to dust like an old fuzz-ball! In the name of Jesus—all is well (again).

50. Boil, boil, howling boil! howl like a dog, coo like an egg (sic), burst like an egg, like a barley-corn.

51. 'Rotten birch-bark,' 'rotten birch-rind,' 'rotten birch-leaf'!—without end, without end.

Against erysipelas.

52. A woman sits at the foot of the hill with thrice nine balls of string in her little basket. The ball rolls, the hills break and roll down. A woman sits at the foot of the hill with thrice nine balls of thread in her little basket: a black ball, blue ball, speckled ball, red ball, white ball. Let the balls roll, the hills break and roll down. Become as soft as a fuzz-ball (repeat twenty-seven times). God the Father . . .

53. The blue erysipelas, the white erysipelas, the red erysipelas, vanish and disappear like the morning frost, like the waning moon, like the shadow of the sun.

Against caries of the bone.

54. Kindle, sun and moon! and let the evil die of hunger. And you, bright stars! come to help. (This must be repeated twenty-seven times over fine tobacco mixed with honey.)

p. 28

Against cramp.

55. A black billy-goat cooks beef, lights a fire of ice; a black man stays in the house, he wishes to contend with me. Go to the sea, in the sea are two posts of ice; you can contend with these! God the Father . . .

At childbirth.

56. 'Wanderer,' 'wanderer,' stand up, seat yourself in the cart, take the reins in your hands and drive home! Hasten, hasten to open the 'gate'; now nobles are driving along, like fish in the Dvina.

57. Shoot forth, 'green pike'! from the 'lake'—gentry are travelling, gentry are travelling—the 'golden sails' belly out. Our Father, which art . . .

Against convulsions in children.

58. The devil's mother and the devil's father drove to church in a large waggon with black horses; three servants with thrice nine arrows issue from the sea, and meet them at the cross roads. There they will shoot thee, there thou wilt vanish, and turn to dust like an old fuzz-ball, like the old moon! God the Father . . .

59. An old master and an old woman in climbing hills get tired. So let (N.) tire the evil that plagues him (the child), that tortures him, that gives him convulsions, that tears him.

60. The evil one breaks a rod. I weep at side of the road; hew the pine, strike the fir; don't strike (N.); (N.) is given by God, begotten of God. God the Father . . .

61. Black men with iron teeth wished to bite (N.); all the small stones of the sea came to help (N.).

p. 29

62. A black man walks along the street, he carries in his hand a black cat. It was no black man, it was the merciful God himself. Lord Jesus Christ help me. In the name . . .

63. A black man and a black horse are standing in the willow thicket; he has an iron cap, an iron shirt, and iron boots. The black man vanishes, the black horse vanishes, the willow thicket vanishes. In the name . . .

64. A tiny little dog runs about day and night, barking and protecting my cradle and my bairnie. God the Father . . .

65. Four table-legs, four table-corners, four corners of the room; three magpies; one black magpie, one parti-coloured magpie, one green magpie; three black whelps, three black kittens, watch my little child. God the Father . . .

Against all sorts of evil.

66. An iron pig creeps through a hay-cock. You have crept in there, remain there! Iron men! take iron forks and cast it (the pig) out. Lord Jesus Christ, thou and thy Mother protect me! Our Father . . . (thrice).

67. Go away to the sea, gnaw the white flint stones in the sea, don't gnaw my body! Let all evils disappear like mist, like smoke, like the morning frost in the sun, like the waning moon! Let my good health beam like the sun in the sky!

68. The black cock is sitting on the willow bush, the mother of the devil (Jods) is coming with swords and pistols; there they will shoot thee down, there thou wilt disappear. Hew into the pine, hew into the fir, don't hew into the oak. God the Father . . .

p. 30

Charms relating to cow's milk.

69. (If the milk has been bewitched, one says:) Black men were mowing hay on an island in the sea, with pitchy caps on their heads, and dressed in coats of plaited withes.

70. A hen is running to the stall with nine chicks; kind Maria went behind with nine milk-pails. Three springs flow into the sea; may they all flow into the udder of my cows. One-armed fellow, one-armed fellow! stand at the cross-way and look out for who comes by, who comes by, who runs by. One-armed fellow, one-armed fellow! look out for who comes, who runs by, the witches and the sorceresses.

71. Fly, witch, obliquely through the air, don't enter my farmyard. My farmyard is tipped with iron, the rafters are made of scythes, the rafters are made of scythes, the roofs are studded with needles, trimmed with scythes, stuck with needles. 1


A love-spell.

1. I the servant of God (N.) begin, I shall go from door to door, from the door to the gate, to the eastern side of the sea-ocean. In this sea lies an island; on this island stands a post; on this post sit seventy-seven brothers. They forge steel arrows day and night. I shall address them in a whisper: 'Give me, ye seventy-seven brothers, the arrow that is hottest and lightest.'

I shall shoot that arrow at the servant of God, the girl (N.) in the left teat, lungs, and liver, that she shall lament

p. 31

and weary (for me) by day, at night and at midnight, and shall not dispel the feeling by eating and drinking.

I lock with a strong lock and (throw) the key into the water.—From the Government of Perm.

Against toothache.

2. Near a path, near a wood, stands a tree, under the tree lies a dead body; St. Antipi goes past the corpse and says: 'Why, corpse, dost thou lie down? do not thy teeth ache, do not thy ribs pain thee, do not worms gnaw thee, art thou not bleeding?'

'They do not pain me.'

'Become, ye teeth, insensible to pain in the servant of God (N.), like those in the dead body; O God, ratify it (with a ratification) stronger than a stone.'—From the Government of Vorónež.

3. The moon is in the sky, a bear in a forest, a corpse in a coffin; when these three brothers come together, then let the servant's (N.) teeth ache.'—From Vorónež.

4. The new moon is in the sky, a grey horse is in a field, a pike is in the sea; when these three meet, then let my teeth part company.—From Vorónež.

5. Go to a rowan-tree and gnaw it a little several times, repeating: 'Rowan-tree, Rowan-tree! cure my teeth! If thou wilt not cure them I will gnaw thee all over.'—From the Government of Kaluga.

Against gripes.

6. The wizard circles round the place where the gripes are felt with a whetstone and makes a cross over the place with a table-knife while praying, and crosses himself thrice: I cut, I cut off, I hew, I hew in half, I cut, I split the

p. 32

gripes with a sharp knife. As a whetstone is worn down by steeled iron, by steel, by iron, so let the inborn gripes in the white bone, in the dark flesh, in the white body, wear down and wither for ever and ever.

Afterwards they wash the knife with water and give it to the patient to drink, or with it they wash the sore place.—From Pri-Argunsk in the Transbaikal Province.

Against scrofula.

7. To be spoken over water and salt.

Thou must not remain here, thou must not live here; thou must remain in swamps, on rotten trunks, behind dark forests, steep mountains, and yellow sands. There thou must remain, there must live.—From Vorónež.

8. To be said thrice over the oil with which the sore place is rubbed.

I begin by blessing myself, crossing myself, I shall go from door to door into an open field. In the open field flow three rivers: the first Varvareya, the second Nastaseya, the third Paraskoveya. These rivers wash stumps, roots, white stones, and steep mountains, and yellow sand. So let them wash the horrid red redness, the scrofulous scrofula, in the servant of God (N.). O horrid red redness, roll, tumble out of his bones and marrow, from the white body, from the hot blood, so that it shall not pain nor pinch by day or night, for an hour, half an hour, a minute, half a minute, for ever. Amen.—Parish of Turensk, Valdai district, Government of Novgorod.

Against fever and ague.

9. I the servant of God (N.) begin by blessing myself and crossing myself. I shall go to the blue sea. On the blue sea

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lies a white inflammable stone; on this stone stands God's throne; on this throne sits the very holy Mother, holding in her small white hands a white swan. She plucks, she pulls out of the swan a white feather. Just as the white feather jumped and leaped back, so jump and leap back, sever from the servant of God (N.), ye inborn fevers and inborn heat from the poor raging head, the bright eyes, the dark brows, the white body, the warm heart, the black liver, the white lungs, and from the poor hands and feet.

If it came from the wind, let it go back to the wind; if it came from the water, let it go back to the water; if it came from the forest, to the forest let it return henceforth and for ever.—From Pri-Argunsk, Transbaikal Province.

Against hernia.

10. In an open field stands a moist oak; in the moist oak is an iron man. And this iron man cannot be given to drink or be fed with bread or salt or any fruit, but they have to feed this iron man with the hernia from the heart of a living man, with hernia from under the breast, with hernia from the navel. Also, in the blue sea ocean is a white stone, and from this white stone issues a pretty girl, who advances to the servant of God (N.) and takes from the servant of God the hernia in his navel, the hernia in his heart, the hernia in his breast, and lays it on a silk ribbon, and takes it down to the moist oak, to the iron man. This iron man eats up and devours the hernia from the heart of this servant of God, the hernia from under his breast, the hernia from his navel, and then the iron man becomes satiated—From eighteenth-century documents of the Secret Chancery.

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11. To be repeated thrice, and each time the sore place is to be bitten:

O hernia, hernia, thou hernia that growest in a pine forest, gnaw, hernia! stumps, roots, and rough stones. Go for a walk, hernia, in an open field; there thou canst walk at pleasure, there amuse thyself away from the servant (N.) of God for ever and ever.—From Turensk, Valdai district, Government of Novgorod.

Against an abscess or boil.

12. Draw the middle finger of the right hand round a knot in the woodwork of the door or window-post and repeat:

As a knot dries and withers up, so let the abscess dry and wither up. As no fire comes from the finger, so let no nodule (come) from the boil.—Čerlinsk, Government of Perm.

Against bleeding.

13. On the sea Kiyan, on the island of Buyana, on a high stone stands a tomb; in the tomb lies a pretty girl. Rise and get up, pretty girl! take a sewing-needle, thread it with a silk thread, and sew up the bleeding wound. Amen (thrice).—From Alatịrsk, Government of Simbirsk.

14. On the sea Okiyan, on the island of Buyana, stands a small room; in the small room are three girls. The first keeps needles, the second girl makes thread, and the third sews up a bloody wound. Horse! thou art chestnut; Blood! do not gush. Horse I thou art brown; Blood! do not drip.—From Government of Tula.

15. On the sea-ocean is the oceanic Tsar; under him is a brown horse. Blood! don't drip up to this day and hour, till it is with my agreement and decree, for ever and

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ever. Amen. From district of Valdai, Government of Novgorod.

Against snake-bite.

16. To be said thrice over damp aspen bark, which is then rubbed on the wound.

From the sea, from behind a hill, from a white stone  issued a broad feathered snake, and brought three iron pincers and took out the sting of a black snake, of a little striped snake, of a copper snake, of a blind-worm.—Government of Tula.

17. Make a circle round the wound with the finger moistened with spittle and say:

Fierce snake! thy house is in a cave, the servant (N.) of God is in a village. Fierce snake! for thee it is a long way to the sea, and for the servant of God (N.) it is high to the sky. Fierce snake! thou hast a glowing coal in thy teeth and the servant of God has a white body. Do not pain, do not swell, henceforth and for ever.—From the Government of Tula.

Against worms, grubs.

18. Saddles rattle, bits jingle, let the grub ride into empty sacks for hops, for light goods, and fly across the sea. There grubs are holding a wedding; a lamb, a barren cow, are being roasted; there is a fire for grubs there, burning brimstone and boiling tar; run away, grubs, from here across the sea!—From a seventeenth-century MS., Government of Perm.

Against a tired back.

19. A woman going out for the first time in harvest cuts the first handful of rye and girds herself with it, saying:

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As Mother Rye stood for a year and did not get tired, so let my back not get tired from reaping.—Government of Vologda.

Hunting spells.

20. A white hare runs, (it is) like white ice. On one side stands the prophet Ilya with twelve servants: 'Servants, faithful servants, I lay upon you no heavy task! take each of you an iron switch and drive together from the Kama and the Volga, from the open field, from a wide comfortable place, from hillocks and hills into the trap set by (N.).'—From the district of Tigrits in the Altai, in the Province of Transbaikal.


21. When baiting a hook, say:

The fish is fresh, the bait is fat; nibble and bite and pull it to the bottom.—Government of Archangel.

22. Repeat thrice:

Fish, little fish! enter the mother net, the wide 'pair of drawers.'—From South Siberia.

On presenting a petition.

23. Before actually entering the house you must catch hold of the handle of the door three times and say:

'As the handle of this door speaks, so let (N.) speak against me.'

After entering suddenly look up and think or say:

'I am a wolf, thou art a lamb; I shall eat thee up, I shall swallow thee up, be afraid of me.'—From district of Yenisei. 1

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Against gout.

1. Fuge, fuge, podagra et omnis nervorum dolor de pedibus meis et omnibus membris meis. Or, if the charm is recited over another person, you say: 'illius quem peperit illa.'

2. φύγε ποδάγρα, Περσεύς δε διώκει.

Against a stye in the eye.

3. φεῦγε φεῦγε, κρείων (l. κριθή) σε διώκει.

Transference of a disease.

4. Let loose a green lizard, saying: ecce dimitto to vivam; vide, ut ego quemcunque hinc tetigero, epar non doleat.

5. Pluck some of the fur from the belly of a live hare, and release it, saying: fuge, fuge, lepuscule, et tecum aufer coli dolorem.

To improve the digestion.

6. Lie down and rub your stomach, while thrice repeating: Lupus ibat per viam, per semitam, cruda vorabat, liquida bibebat.

At the period of menstruation.

7. Herbula Proserpinacia, Horci regis filia, quomodo clausisti muli partum, sic claudas et undam sanguinis hujus.

Against toothache.

8. When you see the first swallow, without speaking you approach clear water and put some in your mouth; then with the middle finger of either hand you rub your teeth and say: Hirundo tibi dico, quomodo hoc (sc. aqua) in rostra iterum non erit, sic mihi dentes non doleant toto anno.

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Against stomach-ache.

9. Tres scrofœ de cœlo ceciderunt, invenit eas pastor, occidit eas sine ferro, coxit eas . . . sine dentibus. Bene coxisti, bene coxisti, bene coxisti.

10. Corce corcedo stagne, pastores te invenerunt, sine manibus collegerunt, sine foco coxerunt, sine dentibus comederunt. Tres virgines in media mari mensam marmoream positam habebant; duæ torquebant, una retorquebat. Quomodo hoc numquam factum est, sic numquam sciat illa Gaia Seia corci dolorem.

11. Rub the stomach with the left thumb and both little fingers, spit, and say thrice: Stabat arbor in media mare et ibi pendebat situla plena intestinorum, tres virgines circumibant, duæ alligabant, una resolvebat. 1

Against bleeding.

12. Stulta femina super fontem [montem?] sedebat
Et stultum infantem in sinu tenebat,
Siccant montes, siccant valles,
Siccant venæ, vel quæ de sanguine sunt plenæ. 1


Against a swelling.

1. Stroke the sore place from right to left with a whetstone, a brush, and wool-scissors. At every stroking spit on the ground and say:

Good-morning (good-evening), swelling! If you were as big as a clock-tower you shall become as small as a grain of mustard. You shall wither away and become nothing. In the name, etc.

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To stupefy the judge.

2. Look at him between your fingers and repeat:

I look through my fingers, and I turn your fancy from all other men to me. And my utterance shall be your utterance, and my teeth shall bind your teeth. In the name, etc.

To stop bleeding.

3. I shall bind this blood with my ten fingers. In the name, etc.

4. You shall stand as the man that stood in the gateway of hell. By the three holy names, etc.

5. Get on a stone lying fast in the earth, and repeat thrice against the sun:

Stand still, you blood! as Jordan's flood, when our Saviour let himself be baptized. In the name, etc.

Against stitch and pleurisy.

6. Hold hard! by force, as Christ let himself be born. Let no stitch hold you, no pleurisy sting you, in the name of the Holy Trinity. Amen.

Against snake-bite.

7. Gub, Gub, Gub under the fir-tree's root stung our Lord Jesus in his foot. He that had stung burst, but not He that was injured. By the three holy names, etc.

When an animal has received an 'elfshot.'

8. A sorcerer (trollkarl) went to the forest to shoot. Our Lord Christ met him, and said: 'Whither goest thou?' He answered: 'I shall go to the forest to shoot; I shall shoot people, and I shall shoot beasts, whatsoever

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is in front (of me).' Said He: I forbid thee that; thou shalt shoot stocks and earth-fast stones.' In nomine, etc.

Against pain in the head.

9. The Virgin Mary and her maidens went down to the shore; there they saw brains floating. They waded out and took them, and put them in the brain and brain-pan, with God's grace.

Against whitlow.

10. Our Lord went forth on his way; the whitlow met him. 'Where are you going?' said our Lord. 'I mean to go to a man to break bone and to cause pain.' 'No,' said our Lord, you shall not work harm even on an earth-fast stone.' 1


The Magic Songs and Charms are built up or composed of various simple cells, or elements, each containing an idea which can be compressed into a single sentence. The number of these simple elements, when stated in the most general and comprehensive terms, amounts to about seventy-five, though it will be sufficient to enumerate the limited number of ten.

1. The exorcist or reciter of the song invokes or desires the help of a stronger power, or invokes the aid of a helper; this last may be an animal or an inanimate object.

2. The spirit of disease, or whatever harm the exorcist or the reciter has to counteract, is told what to do, or the helper is told what to do.

Each of these themes occurs over 260 times; with hardly

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an exception, all the prayers or invocations for aid from a kindly helper, from § 114 to § 182, contain these two ideas alone, though worked out in a great variety of phraseology. In fact, they are the simplest and most natural forms of incantation, merely amounting to the invocation of a friendly helper and telling him what to do. In the Mordvin, Lettish, and Russian examples we also find the invocation of helpers, and with the two latter peoples the spirit of disease or other harm-doer is instructed how to act.

3. The origin or genealogy of the disease or cause of harm is described, or its early state mentioned, e.g. § 183 to § 233. This occurs 150 times, and is also found in Esthonian charms, which greatly resemble those of the Finlanders, but not elsewhere, so far as I know. Yet the string of abusive and contemptuous epithets, followed by no further remarks, such as the Lettish charms 35, 51, might be taken to represent the sort of germ from which the 'origins,' from one point of view at least, came gradually into use.

4. The exorcist, or speaker, relates a short story or fact, the incidents of which are appropriate, and have reference to what he wishes to do or to obtain. There are fifty-five examples of this in the Magic Songs, e.g. 2 d, f, 8 c, d, 10 a—d, 12 c, 21 a, etc.; five in the Mordvin charms; four in the Swedish; six in the Post-Classical; ten in the Russian; and no less than 35 or 50 per cent. in the Lettish charms. The recitation of the story was itself sufficient for the purpose of banishing the evil, e.g. 2 f, 10 b—d, etc.; Mordvin 3–5; Swedish 7–10; Post-Classical 6, 9–11; Russian 1, 2, 8, 9, etc.; Lettish 5, 6, 11, etc.;—though sometimes it was followed by a wish, a curse, or some other formula. In seven instances mentioned above,

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vol. i. 358, stories are cited as a precedent why a similar result to that in the stories should again occur. As the recitation of an anecdote, which is sometimes reduced to a couple of sentences, is a very indirect way of exorcising, especially when it is purposely composed of impossible incidents, with the intention that they should react on the disease or injury, and render it impossible, we have good reason to suppose that it is not an original Finnish element. The frequency of this method of procedure among the Letts is remarkable, and it is from them the Finns have probably borrowed the usage; the Mordvins may have taken the idea from the Russians.

5. The exorcist, or other speaker, orders, advises, or hints to the spirit of disease, or cause of pain, to remove to a definite place. There are thirty-seven examples of this very simple formula, e.g. 10 a, 17 a, d—f, m—p, r—u, w.

6. An inducement to depart is offered to the cause of the ailment or injury. Of this there are twenty-four examples, many of which have been mentioned in vol. i. 349. In the Russian list, No. 18, grubs are tempted to retire by the inducement of a wedding, held at a great distance, where a lamb and a cow are being roasted; and in the Lettish No. 46 a boil or abscess is to hurry off to the forest, where it will find its grandfather and grandmother, quite as in some of the Finnish examples. The notion of offering a bribe or bait of some kind to an enemy is so natural that, as regards the Finns, it may have arisen spontaneously.

7. The exorcist or the reciter describes or invokes the assistance that can be rendered by animals, birds, trees, or stones. There are twenty examples, e.g. 2 c, 14 g, h, 16 a, 17 d, x, etc.

8. If the disease or injury came from a certain place or

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person, it is to return there. This occurs nineteen times, e.g. 17 6, c, g, j—l, q, v, x—z, 24, etc. It is also found in the Russian list, No. 9.

9. The speaker boasts his powers, or relates what he has done or will do. This theme occurs seventeen times, e.g. 14 a—i, 16 b, 17 u, etc., and is also found in the Votiak, No. 17, 24; Lettish, No. 49.

10. Something impossible is to happen before the particular evil dreaded is to be effected, or to take place. With the Votiaks twenty-two out of twenty-five charms are based upon this conception; with the Čeremis ten out of fourteen; with the Mordvins three out of eleven; with the Russians two out of twenty-three; with the Letts and Finns it does not occur at all. The nearest approach to it with the latter people is to be found in the formula 'to make fast,' 18 a, b, where the evils exorcised to a certain place are to remain till something impossible happens. It is possible that the East Finns have borrowed this mode of exorcising from the Russians, though the former have elaborated the idea, and venture on far bolder and quainter impossibilities than the Russians. The Čeremisian idea of making a ladder of one's ribs to climb up to heaven (No. 14), as a hyperbole, is decidedly original.

In smaller details there are also correspondences between the Finnish and some of the other groups. In the Mordvin No. 8 the exorcist seems to identify himself with the god Niške-pas, just as the Finnish wizard calls himself 'the son of Ukko, the father above, the observant man of. the sky' (176 l). Again, an ailment of some kind or other is told to injure something inanimate instead of a human being. This injunction is very baldly stated in the Lettish No. 1, 34, 68; but it is worked out in considerable detail in the

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[paragraph continues] Finnish examples. 'Let tumours grow on trees, on the earth excrescences, watery blisters upon shoots, boils charged with blood on sapling firs, not on a human being's skin, on the body of a mother's son (146 a). Rather than freezing me . . . nip willow-roots, pain roots of birch, shake alder roots, smash aspen roots, freeze swamps, freeze fields, freeze Kalma's rocks (93 c).'


It is far from certain that in the first three or four periods the Finns had any magic formulæ at all. In those early times, judging from what we know of the Ugrian groups and the Samoyedes, in a case of grave sickness, an appeal was made to a wizard, first, to ascertain the cause of the illness, and, secondly, to find out what offering would most likely propitiate the offended household or other god. If they had any formulae at all, they would be of a very simple character: an appeal to some kindly helper, such as the household or the private god, to free them from their trouble, and this would be far more of the nature of a prayer than of a magic incantation. Indeed, the notion of magic in the modern sense of the word did not exist. There was no thought of attaining an object by other than what seemed thoroughly natural means, and there was no supreme god whose prerogatives would be infringed either by the words used, or by any sympathetic magical procedure that accompanied the words and incantations. The great mass of the Magic Songs belongs to comparatively recent times, and many have been composed since the introduction of Christianity in the twelfth century. Nevertheless they contain much older elements, and the mental

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attitude of the composer is often decidedly archaic. The word runo, 'a song or ballad,' originally a 'mysterious song,' came into use, as we have seen, in the fifth period, and the earliest germs of magic songs perhaps may be referred to that epoch, though the present regular metre is doubtless later. It seems to me that the Magic Songs would receive their greatest development in the interval between pure heathenism and pure Christianity. By this time the mental progress and the material civilisation of the Finns was very considerable, and nearly if not quite on a par with their Swedish, Slav, and Lettish neighbours. This was accompanied, as is generally the case, with a certain amount of scepticism and recklessness. A power that was formerly supposed to exist solely among professional wizards and wise men was now claimed by laymen. People now began to be their own wizards, to recite their own songs; divining was performed with a common sieve, not with a magic drum; charming by means of versified incantations became vulgarised, so to speak. Instead of holding one or two great public festivals at the opening of the hunting and fishing season, when public religious ceremonies were held and sacrifices offered for the success of the expeditions, every fisherman and hunter recited his own private magic song for himself as occasion required. Every house-father and house-mother knew a few metrical charms that protected their few cows and horses as they grazed in the forest against bears and wolves, or their rye crops from the ravages of insects and frost. The housewife or her near neighbour had always a song ready for every sick child, whatever the complaint might be, for with the increase of civilisation far greater care was taken of the children than in the old days. No doubt there were

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still professional wizards and wise men about the country, but their office was not hereditary—it was thrown open, as it were, to public competition; the successful became renowned, the unsuccessful fell back into the ranks of the laymen. At least, an explanation of this sort seems best to account for the frequent interrogations and hesitation on the part of the exorcist, which in the case of a professional would hardly occur. Perhaps the origins' are of lay origin, and developed out of a practice of vilifying a man and his ancestors in everyday life. The more or less poetic, sometimes almost lyrical, form of expression, especially in the formulæ 'to benefit cattle'; the similes, the metaphors, and figurative expressions, collected at the end of the chapter, seem to show that the Magic Songs are in a great measure the outcome of a great many minds of people of various vocations, not of a professional class of wizards, sorcerers, and dealers in the black art.


In spite of their purely practical purpose, the Magic Songs, besides possessing regular metre, are sometimes embellished by similes. Doubtless they belong to the latest period, but are not the less interesting as they seem to be of purely native growth, and not to be due to external influence. They are drawn for the most part from natural phenomena, from the animal and vegetable kingdom, or from artificial products and objects made by man's hand.

Firmness, rigidity, steadiness.

Like a wall, stand still, O Blood, remain like a fence, O Foaming Gore, like a yellow iris in the sea, like a sedge

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amid the moss; stand like a stake in a morass, a bar of iron in a rock, a stone in a raging cataract, a flag (stone) on a ploughed field's edge (55 d).

Then steady as a wall stand still, as firm as a fence, Divining Gear! (59 a.)

Stand still like a castle-wall, like a stone church's tower, like the wall of Jerusalem (61).

Let my great kinsfolk rise (in a serried line) like a solid mountain slope, like a long bank of cloud (2 e).

Rapidity, ease of movement.

Crawl on the ground like a snake of the earth, like an adder through withered grass; run through deep forests like a bear, like an otter hurry through a lake, like a squirrel through boughs of fir, like an ermine through holes in stones (17 l).

Creep on the ground like a little snake, like an otter rush along the shore (17 o).

Like a gwiniad thou camest in, like a sea muik 1 darted in (45 a).

Like a gwiniad rush away, dart like a muik of the sea (45 a).

Like a gwiniad dash, like a fish of the water dart, like a sea muik dive (4S b).

Like a ball of red worsted tumble in (to the water) (46 a).

Reach the clouds like smoke (46 a).

Blow like the wind, like water roll, like air's warm vapour float away from a naked human skin (52 a).

(To a hare.) Come like the ruddy fire, like summer water roll from ’neath a tree, from ’neath a fir (67 b).

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(To a hare.) Like a golden cuckoo run, like a silver knob, into this gin of mine, straight into my golden snares (67 a).

(To Ukko.) O come from the sky like fire, quiver like a burning brand (117 b).

(Convey the scent) to the nostrils of the dog like fire, like smoke to the puppy's nose (125).

(O Ismo,) come like the wind, make speed like a thought (171 c).

Into the room like a whirlwind fly (17 g).

Bowling along like a golden ball or like a silver chip (176 s).

Slower, unsteady movement.

(A stone.) It fell like a scarlet ball of thread, came wobbling like an oaten ball, came rolling like a wheaten lump, through cloudy columns, through rainbows red (196 a).

Thou wast not great when thou didst roll like a wheaten cake, or like a piece of barley dough (26 a).

Like a sweet dumpling go away, roll off like wheaten groats? (26 a.)

Soft movement.

(To a bear.) Like a flax-bundle move along, roll like the flax on a distaff bound (69 b).

Helpless movement combined with expansion.

(Thou wast not great) when in the furnace thou didst toss, like summer butter didst flop about, like wheaten dough expand in the raging place of fire (40 b).

The iron stretched out like pap, bubbled up like slag,

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expanded like wheaten dough, like rye-meal dough, in the smith's huge fire (214 a).

(A fir-tree.) It expanded like wheaten dough, like a pat of butter bobbed about (212 g).

Eager movement.

Flee to the clouds, O Fire, as any one to his mother goes, to his great parent flies (52 a).

Fly down like a cock to the cattle-shed, like a chick to the dwelling-house, right down on the refuse-heap (17 g).

Driving furiously.

Like a spark flash past, like a fleet hound rush (9 b).

Restless movement.

Keep wriggling there, O 'Honey-paws,' like a wood-grouse on its nest, like a goose on its hatching-place (69 e).

Facile and complete disappearance.

May thy injuries dry up, the traces left by copper fade, as wine dries upon a stone, as water on rock evaporates (54).

May sores sink into the earth as a stone sinks in the waves or iron in the sea (7 a).

May the angriness of wounds dissolve like salt in the sea, the malignity of wounds sink like sand into water, may vexations melt like wax in the fire, may bitterness evaporate like dew on a sandy heath (7 b).

Like brandy drink thine angriness, like ale the anguish thou hast caused, like 'sour water' thy bitterness, like milk drink thy spell-sent malady, like honey thine acerbity, like buttered eggs thy fever fits (7 c).

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Like brandy drink thine angriness, like all the evil thou hast caused (47).

Nature in a state of flux.

When help from the Lord arrived—Hills flowed like butter then, rocks like the flesh of swine, blue forest-wilds like mead, the landlocked lakes like ale, low land uprose, high land sank down (12 c).

Movement associated with joy.

(Thou, Sun) hast mounted above the clumps of firs, like a golden cuckoo, like a silver dove hast risen up to the level sky, to thy former state (110).

(To the Creator's golden wattled cock.) Like a golden cuckoo fly, like a dear silver dove, to speak on my behalf (124).

(To the compassionate mother, the Virgin Mary.) Like a golden cuckoo come, like a silver turtledove, to (heal) the burns of one in agony (171 e).

A happy state of existence.

Like a golden cuckoo thou wilt sing, like a silver turtledove, in thy lofty home, in thy lovely house (17 b).

Easy fracture.

Thou'lt snap in half like an alder staff (75).

Brightness, brilliancy.

Bright let these eyes become, as the stars of the sky, as the moon in the south, as a ray of the sun (46 b).

A tall man in Pimentola, whose bristly beard did gleam like a leafy grove upon a slope, whose hair did sway like a clump of pines upon a hill (176 j, and 211 b).

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Smoothness, slipperiness.

Thou art smoother than a gwiniad, than a muik fish more slippery (45 a).

Thou wast smoother than a gwiniad, more beautiful than water's fish (45 b).

Comb them (the cattle) as smooth as a lynx's coat, as the downy coat of a 'forest ewe' (123 a).

Noise and glare.

Cause a crash like a thunder-clap, cause a glare like a lightning-flash (17 g).

Whiteness, brightness.

Pure is the snow-finch on the snow, but purer still art thou: bright is the star in the sky, but brighter thy betrothal gifts; white is the foam on the sea, thy body is whiter still (80 a).

Cause her (a marriageable girl) to glisten like the moon, to sparkle like a star, to turn the minds of men, to set their hearts on fire (133 d).

Ukko has rained fresh snow, as white as an autumn ewe, as white as a winter hare (89 b).

Height, size.

A stone as high as a church, a flagstone thick as a tower (28 a).

A stone as high as a church, a flagstone thick as a hill (99 b).

My dogs have eyes as large as a bridle-ring, my dogs have ears as large as a water-lily on a lake, my dogs have teeth as sharp as an Esthonian scythe, my dogs have tails as thick as the most lovely forest fir (89 b).

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Lowliness, insignificant condition.

Who knew a stone to be a stone, when it was like a barley-corn, rose from the earth like a strawberry, from the side of a tree like a bilberry? (196 b.)

(Speaking of a tree.) Thou wast not great when thou rose from a knoll, from the earth emerged like a strawberry, like an arctic bramble in the woods (38 a).

He (a water-Hiisi) reached the land like a strawberry, fell down like a lump of wheaten dough (206 b).

(The fir) sprang from the earth like a strawberry, like a rooted plant with unbending head; it grew like a two-branched plant, like a three-branched plant shot up (212 g).

(The fir,) like a strawberry, sprouted from the earth, like an arctic bramble—in the woods (212 g).

(Bent grass.) It rose from the earth like a strawberry, grew up like a three-branched plant (220).

Unceremonious treatment.

Hops . . . was poked into the ground, ploughed into the ground like a little snake, was like an ant thrown down at the side of the well of Kaleva (209 a).

Tightness and softness.

(To a dog.) May thy jawbones be as tightly closed as a flax-break lid is tightly closed; may thy teeth be as soft as (the husks) in my fist are soft (72 a).

A minimum of benefit.

Just this much they got out of me, what an axe gets from a stone, a borer from a rock, a stump from slippery ice, or death from an empty room (14 b).

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Plenty, abundance.

There heads are (plentiful) as hills, hair (plentiful) as withered grass (17 o).

Speedy death.

Like a cockroach thou shalt die forthwith (62).

Dishonour, inglorious death.

Well, wretch, thou brok’st thine oath, didst eat thine honour like a dog (40 b).

He died with the glory of a dog, he fell with the honour of a whelp (228 b).


Besides similes such as the above, we also find more or less quaint remarks, not devoid of humour; sometimes a pun or an example of drawing the long bow.

The forest deities are addressed as follows:—Bind up their wings with twine, confine their instruments of flight, entwine their legs with string, roll up their toes in wax, that with their wings they cannot fly, that with their feet they cannot run, till I am ready with my bow (136 a).

Hey! Love, wake up! O Love, arise! without being lifted by a cord, without being hauled by a tarry rope (133 f).

The same words are addressed by a housewife to yeast to make it rise: 'Rise, Yeast, when being raised . . . without being raised by ropes, without being hauled by tarry cords. The sun and moon have risen both, yet thou hast not begun to rise' (74).

’Tis better a stone should scream, ’tis better a flagstone yell, than one of a woman born, or by a creature brought

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to birth (128 d). A stone weeps not at pain, nor a flag bewail its sufferings, though many should be laid on it, be flung on it unstintingly (17 t). The pun is rare, but it was not tabooed: Mourning (suru) I have for a morning meal (suurus), 89 e.

Exaggeration is more common: The brutal fellow broke it (an aspen tree) through, completely shattered it in two; with the salve he anointed it . . . the aspen was made whole again, became e’en better than before

(232 a). A swallow for a whole day flew from the withers to the end of the tail, a squirrel for a whole month ran between the horns of the ox, yet still it never reached the end, it never came indeed so far (232 g).


The familiar language of the illiterate classes of society, the slang of the man in the street all over Europe, is largely composed of figurative expressions and metaphors. Having no literature, for the most part, almost their only intellectual excitement, and the sole exercise of their wit and fancy, consist in the invention of new ways of saying old things. When worn-out and stale, these expressions are replaced by newer ones. Sometimes, too, allusive words are used to avoid pronouncing the proper word, either because it is unlucky to do so, or from notions of delicacy and modesty. It is not surprising then that the inventors or reciters of the Magic Songs, being themselves quite illiterate, found pleasure and satisfaction in intercalating expressions which hinted at what they meant to say in an indirect or roundabout fashion.

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The body.

Eye—'a gloomy wood' (?), 45 b.

Tears—'the waters of grief.'

Veins—'the blood-pipes.'

Blood—'milk,' 'the berry-coloured,' 'the carmine,' 'man's beauty.'

Milk—'the gift of cows.'

Tongue—'the central flesh.'

Nose—'the scenting horn,' 'the scenting channel.'

Throat—'the breathing-hole,' 'the talking-place.'

Jaws—'pincers,' 'scraping-knife,' 'scissors.'

Venom of a snake—'milk.'

Lap—'the tent.'

Embryo—'the pod.'

Womb and pudendum—'fleshly chest,' 'stove,' 'oven,' 'small nest,' 'cramped abode,' 'fleshly door,' 'fleshly threshold,' 'door-posts,' 'sinewy gate,' 'water gate,' 'Creator's slit,' 'land,' 'fields,' 'fence,' 'wall.'


Old man—'a bearded mouth.'

Woman, hag—'long-hairs,' 'bristly snout.'


Marriageable girl—'swamp-grown flower,' 'chick,' 'flower of the earth,' 'village flower,' 'earth's chosen one,' 'sun,' 'moon,' little bullfinch,' 'wee snow-sparrow.'

Maiden—'a tinny breast.' (From the tin ornaments on her breast.)

New-born child—'the traveller,' 'wee fingers,' 'a stone,' 'a pebble,' 'the backmost flat stone' (in the stove or oven).

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Sorcerer—'archer,' 'shooter,' 'Lapp,' 'the jealous one,' 'Piru,' 'cur,' giant' (koljumi),176 c, 'elf' (keijolainen), 176 n, 'Keito,' 'wolfskin coat,' 'fiery throat,' squinting eye,' 'viper,' 'frog.'

Sharp frost—'sweller of ears,' 'hurter of nails,' 'demander of toes.'

Maiden of a spring or swamp—'blue socks,' 'red socks,' 'red laces,' 'soft petticoat,' 'slender fingers,' 'golden locks.'

Mist maiden—'leaf-bud,' 'ship-borne yarn.'

Mielikki—'golden buckle of the woods.'

Syäjätär—'fiery throat.'

Para—'stick-shanks,' 'luck-bringer.'

Christ—'the Holy Birth.'

Animals, birds, etc.

Bear—'broad forehead' (otso), 'flat nose,' 'honey paws,' 'lover of honey,' 'broad paws,' 'big foot,' 'claw-footed,' 'blue socks,' 'blue stumpy tail,' 'homespun breeks,' 'tiny eyes,' 'forest king,' 'forest beauty,' 'lovely shaggy coat of hair,' 'forest gold,' 'grey one of the forest,' 'backwood's wonder,' 'hulking fellow,' 'black bullock of the forest,' 'reindeer cow,' 'cow,' 'badger,' 'Juumi's dog,' 'hound of Mielikki,' 'hay-cock,' 'little hay-stack,' 'little apple,' 'little bundle,' 'horror of the land.'

Wolf—'forest cur,' 'Esthonian cur,' 'woolly tail,' 'bushy tail,' 'windy tail,' 'windy throat,' 'hairy snout,' 'hairy foot,' 'projecting eyes,' 'everlasting gadabout,' 'fat dog.'

Dog—'the barker,' 'son of Penitar,' 'woolly tail,' 'money-seeker.'

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Lynx—'forest ewe.'

Fox—'bushy tail.'

Marten—'money pelt,' 'wee bird.'

Ermine—'furred beauty of winter,' 'dear little hen of abandoned fields,' 'flower at the root of a fir,' 'whitish tube.'

Squirrel—'the fir-branch bird,' 'biter of cones,' 'golden apple of the fir,' 'blossom of the knoll, furious forest-cat,' blue-wool.'

Hare—'ragged jaws,' 'crooked neck,' 'cross-shaped mouth,' 'squinting eyes,' 'ball-eyes,' 'swivel eyes,' 'bandy legs,' 'Hiisi's bandy legs,' 'slender paws,' 'mad-cap,' 'sheep,' 'distaff bound with wool.'

Game in general—'gold,' 'silver,' 'money,' 'money hair,' 'precious pelts,' 'cloaks,' 'black fur coats,' 'golden fur coat,' 'homespun cloth,' 'flax-stalks,' 'handful of flax,' 'packages of wool,' 'golden distaff bound with wool,' 'fir-tree flowers,' 'mountain cattle,' 'ewes,' 'rams,' 'drooping ears,' 'hoofs,' 'feet,' 'sweet rye-cakes,' 'Kuippana's groats.'

Horse—'bone-hoof,' 'money-skin,' 'camel.'

Cow—'crumpled horn,' 'cloven foot,' 'milk-giver,' 'mushroom-eater,' 'old woman,' 'bell.'

Calf—'small hoofs.'

Pig—'down-turned snout.'


Eagle—'steely jaws,' 'scaly back,' 'stone-talons,' 'iron claws.'

Raven—'Lempo's bird,' 'the eater,' 'ill-omened bird,' 'black bird.'

Swallow—'blue wing.'

Game birds—'feathers,' down,' downy feather.'

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Pike—'few of teeth,' 'water monster.'

Perch—'spiky backs,' 'crooked necks.'

Snake—'tangled ball or cunning one,' 'striped back,' 'evil pod,' red ant,' snail,' 'dew-worm of the copse,' worm of the earth,' 'the distaff,' worm of Manala,' 'Tuoni's grub,' 'grub the colour of Tuoni,' 'black worm,' 'grey worm,' 'the ball under withered grass,' 'a rope under a heap of stones,' 'a ghost like a haltia,' 'living portent or oracle,' 'braid of hair of Hiisi's girl,' 'Hiisi's scourge,' 'Piru's whip,' 'beard-hair of the evil one,' 'fence-stake of Aholainen,' 'sledge cross-tree of Rumalainen.'

Cow-house snake—'the wall streak,' 'rubbish on the floor,' 'first cuckoo of the mistress,' 'women's golden purse.'

Lizard—'writhing snake,' land fish (Corregonus albula),' 'water bleak,' 'bow-shaped worm,' 'Lempo's eye,' 'Hiisi's eye,' 'courtyard sweepings,' 'ground sweepings,' 'trash of the fields,' 'trash of Manala,' 'hairpin of the maid of Panula.'

Frog—'dirty face,' 'slaver-mouth,' 'wide jaws.'

Spider—'Jesus’ red worsted ball,' 'Creator's golden flower.'

Grub, caterpillar—'Tuoni's rag,' 'snail of the earth.'

Cabbage grub—'the dog,' 'cur,' 'witch-ball.'

Bee—'honey-wing,' 'blue-wing,' 'king of meadow flowers,' 'the lively bird,' 'nimble bird,' 'active fellow.'

Wasp—'the stinging bird,' 'winged bird,' 'evil bird,' 'feathered chick.'

Hornet—'Hiisi's bird,' 'Lempo's cat.'

Bug—'red breeches,' 'wheel-shaped whelp,' 'roundish flower of the fir.'

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Cockroach—'black bloated boy,' 'six-footed ball-shaped thing.'

Diseases, maladies.

Disease in general—'sorcerer's arrows,' 'bloody needles,' 'Keito's spears,' 'bristles of a pig,' 'fearful (lit. holy) sparks,' 'spice.'

The spirit of disease—'Hiisi,' 'hound of Hiisi,' 'Perkele,' 'cur of Manala,' 'Satan,' 'murderer,' 'filthy Lempo,' 'the wraith (peiko),' 'kobold (kehno),' 'evil cur,' 'shameless cur,' 'unbaptized cur,' 'shameless dog,' 'fiery dog,' 'motherless dog,' 'toad,' 'monster,' 'devourer of flesh,' 'bone-biter,' 'plague of the land.'

Toothache—'Lempo's dog,' 'Tuoni's dog,' 'stinking dog,' 'Tuoni's grub,' 'worm of Manala,' 'Hiisi's son,' 'Hiisi,' 'Juutas,' 'Hiisi's cat,' 'full-grown devil,' 'man-eater,' 'peas and beans.'

Dropsy—'Hiisi,' 'toad.'

Tumour or swelling of any kind—'Lempo's whorl,' 'Lempo's boss,' 'Lempo's lumps,' 'Lempo's ball,' 'Hiisi's toad-stool,' 'Hiisi's filth,' 'needless packages,' 'frog,' 'horror of the land.'

Stitch and pleurisy—'Lempo's leaf-headed spears,' 'Keito's spear,' 'Lempo's arrow,' 'the evil lance,' 'sorcerer's arrows,' 'arrows,' 'jagged spikes of Piru,' 'bloody needles,' 'bloody knife,' 'pointed needle.'

Acute pain—'holy sparks.'

Spell-sent injury—'Hiisi's cankerous sores,' 'Hiisi,' 'Juutas,' 'Perkele,' 'Piru,' 'toad,' 'the bit of death,' 'the chains of Manala,' 'Tuoni's reins.' Wart—'toad,' 'evil one,' annoyance.'

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Cancer—'reptile,' 'maggot,' 'toad,' 'biter of bone,' 'eater of flesh,' 'dog,' 'worm.'

Plague—'the red-cock.'

Disease of the eye—'Hiisi's blemish,' 'evil pagan.'

Colic—'gasping, groaning boy,' 'the griping blockhead,' 'water's scum,' 'toad,' 'Lempo,' 'evil insect,' 'the midge.'

Burns—'Fire's broth,' burnt-out spark,' burnt soot.'

Ringworm—'the Forest's nose.'

Wound—'iron's bite,' 'the evil gate.'

Pains of childbirth—'oppressive bands,' 'belts of pain.'

Trees, minerals, artificial objects, etc.,

Oak—'tree of God.'

Fir—'the moist with honey,' 'honey top,' 'bushy top.'

Rowan—'the murder-tree.'


Iron—'worthless dross,' 'slag of iron,' 'rust.'

Rock salt—'hail,' 'hailstones.'

A cannon—'copper bow,' 'iron churn.'

Gun—'copper cross-bow.' 'iron churn.'

Bullet—'stone fruit,' 'the egg.'

Spear—'the borer.'

Trap—'the farrier's silver tongs,' 'golden cup,' 'copper box,' 'silver door,' 'window of gold,' 'honeyed knoll.'

Net—'the hundred-eyed.'

Hearth—'the golden ring' (?), 52 a, 172 b.

Church—'a hundred planks.'

Coffin—'the house of fir,' 'pinewood nest.'

Millstone—'stony hill.'

Stone—'egg of the earth,' 'clod of a ploughed field.'

Sky—'specky lid.'

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Sun—'the grindstone of the sky' (?), 2 a, the golden ring' (?), 51, 'the Lord's whorl,' 'the god of dawn.'

Moon—'the variegated stone' (?), 2 a.

Rainbow—'blue cloud' (?), 232 d.

The open air—'God's courtyard,' 'the cattle-sheds without a hole and wholly windowless.'

Cemetery—'Kalma's heath,' 'Kalma's sleeping chambers,' 'huts of the Manalaiset,' holy fields.'

Metsola—'the Forest-home,' 'forest fort or castle,' 'golden wilderness,' i.e. full of game, 'Fir-branch fort.'

Pohjola—'the Northern Home,' 'speckled lid,' 'snow castle.'


4:1 Loitsurunoja, pp. iii, iv.

6:1 Loitsurunoja, pp. x, ix.

11:1 Paasonen, (3) No. 1 b, 2 b c d, 3, 5 a, 7, 10, 11, 12, 14.

12:1 Porkka, pp. 96–99, No. 1, 2, 3, 5, 7.

14:1 Genetz, (2) pp. 142-147, No. 1-3, 5-8, 11.

19:1 Wichman, (3) pp 170-192.

30:1 Kobert, pp. 242-277.

36:1 Maikov, No. 21, 65, 75, 77, 80, 88, 94, 95, 97, 124, 125, 134, 143, 151, 160, 186, 187, 202, 280, 322, 323, 353.

38:1 Heim, No. 42, 58, 59, 71, 72, 84, 91, 99, 100, 107, 111.

40:1 Hyltén-Cavallius, vol. i. pp. 412-416, Suppl. ix., x.

47:1 Corregonus albula, or fresh-water herring.



Welcome! for showing thy countenance, for dawning forth, thou golden Sun, for rising now, thou 'morning star'! From under the waves thou hast escaped, hast mounted above the clumps of firs, like a golden cuckoo, like a silver dove hast risen up to the level sky, to thy former state, on thy ancient tour. Rise ever at the proper time, after this very day as well, bring as a gift on coming home, give us completest health, into our hands convey the game, the quarry to our thumb's tip, good luck to our hook's point;

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go on thy circuit pleasantly, conclude the journey of the day, at eve attain to happiness.


Kinsman of Hiisi! rise, awake, thou mountain haltia, to show a man the path, to point to a full-grown man the place where booty is to be obtained, treasures can be opened up before a man who is making search, a fellow creeping on his knees.


From the earth rise, Ghostly Shade (manalainen), like a horror, hairless one, like a hideous fright, clod-headed. one, approach to take away thy blast, to take possession of thine own; the injury thou dost, force down into Tuoni's turf, to the end of the hut of Manala, not into a human being's skin or into a creature's (kave) hide.


O Siilikki [v. Huijutar], woods’ daughter-in-law, pray discipline thy wee 'winged bird,' hide away thy 'feathered chick,' bind up its wings, confine its claws, to prevent it stabbing with its pike, to prevent it sharpening its steel. Kuutar, conceal thy children now, hide, Päivätär, thy family, and follow not a wizard's wish, don't be made jealous by jealous folk.



Come, boy, from Pohjola, boy of the north, and iron-kneed, to grind this Hiisi, this Juutas crush. String a fiery

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bow, draw a copper crooked bow with a fiery string ’gainst thy left knee; feather a fiery bolt with all an eagle's plumes, with the feathers of a sparrow's tail, to be used with the fiery bow; shoot with it Tuoni's grub,' fell the bone-biter with a bang, shoot through the teeth the eater of bone, the biter of flesh, that it cease to eat, to crunch, to fret, to gnaw, that Hiisi's cat' cease shattering, that 'Lempo's dog' cease tearing up, cease ravaging the jaws, cease hacking down the teeth.


Short maiden, Tuoni's girl, take from the teeth this 'cur,' this Lempo from the jaws; press down thy maladies, force down thine injuries, fling down thy filthiness into an iron baking-pan, at the end of Piru's tongs, ’mong Hiisi's coals, in the fire of the evil power. Thou'lt frizzle, Tuoni's grub, thou’lt simmer, worm of earth, thy head will be badly scorched, thy despicable tongue will swell in the iron baking-pan, at the end of Piru's tongs, ’mong Hiisi's coals, in the fire of the evil power.


Heigh! old man, my aunt's son, thou old white-bearded man, just strike with thy whip the ground, with thy thong produce a crack, that a mist from the ground may rise, in the mist a little man, on the shoulder of whom is a bow, in his fist a little bolt; the bow is made of steel, in copper the bolt is cast. I'll shoot with it Hiisi's son, that he cease to eat and gnaw, that he cease to bite and bore, that 'Lempo's cur' shall cease to rend the cherished teeth, the poor cheek-bones.

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§ 115. FOR HORSES.


Expert St. Stephen (Tapani), come, to keep watch close at hand when I send a horse to grass, drive out my small one on the yard, from under a lovely shed, from under a double roof, to the summer grazing-grounds, to the summer sheltered spots, to the honey-dropping sward, to the honeyed grassy knolls. Let it stay happily at the edge of a holy field, to delight me in the afternoon, in the forenoon to make me pleased.


Lord of horses, Tahvanus [v. Timanter, v. Rukotiivo], a god that cleans the mangers out, over my herds keep watch, give fodder to my steeds, devoid of speech, devoid of strength, devoid of guilt, devoid of guile. As thou hast watched them ’neath the shed, defended them ’neath shelter-boards, so watch when they are roofless too, defend them in the bushy woods, when on beds of pine-tree sprays, on pillows made of twigs, that not a hair be broken off, not half a one should come away, against the will of God, despite the intentions of the Blest. If a hair be broken off, e’en half a one should come away, I shall at once demand a brace, I'll sternly make request for three.


O Iki Tiera [v. Hiki Tiera, Niera's [Miera's] son, 1 snow-hoofed 2 and bony-hoofed, pray come to keep watch close

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at hand, to overlook most carefully when I send out a horse to grass, let loose a mare upon the plain, when I throw the halter on the ground, the horse's bell upon the sand. Stand brush in hand at night and holding a comb by day, brush till it gets a lynx-like skin, the coat of a forest-animal (kave).


Let thy father Santta Säitäri, thy lovely mother Pullukka, come to keep watch close by, to overlook from very near, so that the boy shall not depart, the mother's son not slip away from a life by the Creator made, fashioned by God Himself. O Virgin Mary, mother dear, beloved mother, pitiful, pray sanctify with words, prohibit with thy sentences, for holy are thy words, and potent are thy sentences.



From whom shall I 1 ask help for my protection, my support, while this girl is being given away, this man is being betrothed, unenvied by the envious, by an evil wisher undisturbed?

From yonder person I ask for help, from yonder woman I cry for aid: from the gravel, bony-fingered, rise, steel-jawed, from the muddy strand, from the spring, O maiden, rise, 'blue-socks,' from a corner of the swamp. If thou no leisure hast thyself, the uprightest of thy lassies send, the best of all thy serving-maids to cover up this family, this bridal party to conceal. O woman (kave), old

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wife Luonnotar, thou darling woman (kave) and beautiful, begin to indicate the path, to rectify the road to where the girl is given away, the bride is in procession led. May the paths be opened up, may broken roads be rendered smooth; if a fallen tree should block the way, shove it aside, that the great may pass, the small may pass, the weak may move along.

If that is not enough from yonder person I ask for help, from my father in the sky, from my mother in the depths of earth, from whom enduring mercies come, familiar help proceeds. Come, father, from the sky, my mother,—from the depths of earth, to give away this maiden's hand, to lead this man to be betrothed, to overthrow the envious, to overcome the enemy.


Plenty there are of hissing mouths, of husky throats, of sorcerers beside the path, of envious people in every place, while a bridal party trudges past, a man is led to be betrothed.

Ho! Ukko, lord on high, the god that over journeys rules, that holdest fast the clouds, that governest the fleecy clouds, O come from the sky like fire, quiver like a burning brand, having the size of a forest fir, the stature of a swamp-grown pine, though not against myself, nor against my followers, but against the enemies, against tremendous accidents. Start with us, come in company to conduct my bridal train, to tear up spell-cast injuries, to scatter all impediments, to crush the criminals, to snatch away the sorcerers, to squeeze the fiend, to overthrow the spook (kamulainen), to break the devilish weather up, to trample down roads broken up, while I am travelling by

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land, or I on the water row, am on the mountains wandering or roving o’er low-lying ground. Should some one stand across the path, send him aside; if a snake should lie along the road, break it in two at once; if there are trees or fallen trees, shove them aside, if logs are on my path, from the path remove the logs, let the tree-placer become a tree, let the log-maker become a log.



O forest's mistress, Elina, a woman with body undefiled, now bring the game from further off, from the foot of the forest-fort, from the side of the honeyed woods, from the rear of the copper hills; permit a 'bandy legs' to run, a squinting eyes' to lob along, to come this way without alarm, bobbing along without demur, let a big one come or a little one, or one of medium size approach directly towards my trap, towards my snare, to tread with its feet upon my gin, that stands in front of its two paws, avoiding other people's snares, shunning the traps of other men.


O Tapio's daughter, Lumikki, thy snow-white creatures (lumikki) stir, release thy 'gold' 1 to wander forth, thy 'silver' 1 to rove around; turn hither a 'bandy legs,' a 'slender paws' to the centre here, under the firmament of air, towards a man in search of it, towards a stately full-grown man, towards one of a woman born. If from the track it turn away, from its furrow it diverge, by the tail just pull it on the track, or by the ears just set it right, let

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it run with rapidity, let it hurry with hasty foot, without a wizard's knowing it, without being heard by a 'fiery throat,' across the edges of the field, the lower side of untilled land, past other peoples’ cords, under the snares of other men, to the place where I set my gins, to my traps that should be trod, in front of a man in search of game, to the steps of one demanding it.


Distinguished maiden, Varvutar, Mikitär, forest's daughter-in-law, the daughter of Tapio, Annikki, give me when I request, when I with a golden tongue complain; cause thy 'sheep' to come this way, cast out thy 'distaffs bound with wool.' Bestow them heartily from the deep forest dells in threes, in fives, in sixes from the copse, in sevens from the abandoned fields, in eights from clumps of juniper, before the man in search of them, at the steps of him that walks along.


Thou famous maiden, Kulotar, thou lovely woman Kanarvatar, remove thy 'dogs,' eject thy 'curs' from my life-sustaining herbs, these food-producing plants, ere their destruction comes, ere Ukko breaks their heads with drops from the clouds, with iron hail. O 'witch-ball' (tyrä) 1 a mother, Maarana, at the end of a blue bridge sit, holding an iron hook; when thou seest the 'witch-ball' come, make a rattle with thine iron, make a clatter with thy hook.

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§ 120. FISHING.


Foam-mantled Ahti [v. Ahto] of the sea! reed-bearded old man of the sea, throw over thee luck-bringing clothes, put on gift-giving shirts, at this thy time for giving gifts, on this my day for catching fish; give me thy gift, abundantly and promptly draw the crowd that fills the watery tent, the dwellers underneath the wave; from sand-banks gather in the fish, the perch with short and crooked necks, to listen to the music here, to Väinäinöinen's melody.


O Ahti [v. Ahto], master of the waves, the ruler of a hundred caves, give me some perch, impel thy 'spiky-backs,' to where this net is lifted out, to where the hundred-eyed' is dropt; take a stake five fathoms long, a pole of seven fathoms seize, with which to persecute the seas, to stir the bottom of the sea, to raise a shoal of bony ones, to frighten the fishy herd from the fishy bays, from the salmon holes to waters where the nets are cast, to where this net is lifted out.


O water's mistress, Vellamo, water's old wife with reedy breast, come here to exchange thy shirt, to change thy clothes. On thee is a shirt of reeds, on thee is a sea-foam cloak, made by the daughter of the wind, the gift of Aallotar; I give thee a linen shirt, of linen entirely made, by Kuutar woven and spun by Päivätär [v. Kaunotar].


O water's golden king, damp-bearded and with slouching hat, forget thy long enduring hate, thy long protracted

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niggardness; come along with me to fish, as a mate to catch fresh fish, give me some full-grown perch, abundantly of 'crooked necks,' of slippery siks, of dark grey pike. May the dear fish rush into my traps on holidays as formerly a squirrel rushed, alarmed in a clump of firs, jumped suddenly on the swaying boughs, on the leafy trees.


Old wife of the sea with reedy breast, give me some perch from the great centres of the sea, from the gloomy depths, from where the sun ne’er shines, from where the sand is undisturbed, from the open sea's black mud, from the bosom of a bulky wave; frighten the fishy shoal, stir up the swarm of bony ones, chase it from the grots below, from the holes of the reefs in the sea to tug my lines, to make my threads resound; give thy big fish, till the little ones enlarge, cede thy fat fish till the lean ones fatten up.


On the water I cast my net, I fasten my sinks of stone; thou fair old wife, Juolehetar, the water's mistress, benevolent, rise hither from the mud, to give thy well-beloved from thy capacious magazine. Send forth the fishy herd to seas that of old are full of fish, to where I intend to cast the nets; give those for which I beg, bring those for which I ask, from the holes of the reefs pray lift them out, and from recesses of the rocks.


Louhi, the mistress of Pohjola, thrust forth thy woolly fist, turn round thy hairy palm before a man in search of

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game, close to a full-grown walking man. By the Maker ’twould be allowed, by the Creator be vouchsafed, by Tapio be wished that I should get big game, that I should prostrate 'honey paws.'

When I am going to the woods, to the door of bruin's room, pray, oldest of the island, say, speak, lovely Taaria, who art nine sleeping-places away from here, a hundred stages to the rear: 'My "little hay stack," "cock of hay," my "little apple," my wee bear, pray don't disturb thyself at all, don't take it in the least amiss; with virgin honey thou’lt be fed, new honey thou wilt have to drink ’mong full-grown men, in a crowd of men.'

O forest mistress, Mielikki, O Tapio's daughter, Annikki, O Tapio's maiden, Tellervo, thou tiny little forest lass, come hither, there is need of thee, to the hill's north side. Collar thy 'dogs,' 1 restrain thy 'hounds,' in a dogwood sty, in an oaken shed; bend a rowan band or prepare an oaken one with which to muzzle bruin's mouth, lest he open up his jaw while I am coming to the shed, to the court-yard of 'tiny eyes,' to the trampled ground of 'level nose.'



Old man of Juumi, Juumi's old wife, Juumi's former inhabitants, keep in your 'dog,' restrain your 'hound' from the tracts where the cattle range, from these wide tracts of underwood. From the mould a brown one has attacked, a grey one from a sandy heath, a 'big foot' from the swamp has risen, a 'broad paws' from a leafy grove, a 'badger' from the earth has come, from the copse an

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enemy has hurried into evil deeds, has taken to dirty deeds. May the forest bear be choked with a honey ball in his mouth, so that his jaws won't open up, that his teeth won't come apart, that the 'central flesh' won't move, that the tongue won't freely wag.


When the king of forest wilds, the forest's grey one, few of teeth, from his chamber hustles forth, from his castle sallies forth, then forest-mistress, Mielikki, daughter of Tapio, Tuometar, anoint his claws with wort, with honey foment his teeth, that he may never touch a thing, not even when in haste, when trampling over cattle-grounds, when roaming up and down the swamps.

If he pay no heed thereto, but still continues doing harm; Kuitua [v. Kuittola], forest king, Hongas, the mistress benevolent, keep in thy 'dog,' restrain thy 'hound' with collars of gold, with silver straps, behind nine locks, ten bars that open from behind, so that the headstrong cannot run, 'broad brow' can't scuffle with his feet, 'homespun breeks can't roll along, 'blue socks' can't slowly plod to places where my cattle range, to my bullocks’ grazing-grounds.


King of the forest, Kuippana, thou lively grey-beard of the woods, inhibit now thy son, prevent thy bastard son from seeking my live stock, from meddling with my herd. If that is not enough, is still an insufficient guard, prevent the motion of his tongue, the quivering of his pointed nose, stick a mushroom up one nostril and an apple up the other one, lest the cattle's breath give forth a smell, the

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scent of the cattle should be exhaled; over his eyes bind silk, over his ears a bandage tie, lest he should hear the trampling herd, lest he perceive the wanderers.


Good mistress, Hongatar, observant woman, Tapiotar, come, when thou art needed, here, approach, when thou art summoned here, the evil actions of thy son, thy child's outrageous deeds to see. Here damage has come to pass, an accident occurred, thy son has done an evil deed, thy child an act of villany; the villain broke his oath, ate his honour like a dog, when he took to evil acts, began committing hideous deeds.



Distinguished woman, Suvetar, Nature's old wife, Etelätär, that art a watcher of the herd, a keeper of the mistress's flock, arise to cleanse the byre, to watch the cattle of the byre, bring hither luck to calves, toss in to the oxen luck. Shape out a golden comb, furnish a silver brush, provide with a copper comb the doorposts of the door, on which the cattle can rub themselves, the mistress's flock can comb themselves. Pray go with a brush in hand at night and holding a comb by day, without being seen by any one, without alarming any one, and beautifully watch the herd, tend the flock with diligence, comb them as smooth as a lynx's coat, as the downy coat of a forest 'ewe,' that the cattle be beautified, that the mistress's flock may thrive, before the mistress makes her rounds, before the herding lassie looks, a mistress who is good for nought, a witless herding-lass.

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O Jesus consecrate my flock, watch, Jesus, o’er my herd, this summer of Jesus, this important summer-time of God, when from the cowhouse I discharge, send forth my kine to the leafy grove, drive out my cattle to the heath, conduct them to great wooded tracts, along the 'yard of God,' 1 along the ground of Mary dear, to 'cattle-sheds without a hole and windowless.' 1 Ukko, the golden king, the god that in the sky abides, come watch my herd beautifully all summer-time; as thou hast watched them ’neath a shed, watch them among the heather too, as thou didst tend them in the house, so tend them in the clumps of fir, tend them among the firs, rule over them near boughs of pine.


King of the forest, Kuitua, Hongas, the mistress benevolent, daughter of Tapio, Tellervo, thou tiny little forest lass, when I send out my cows to the delightful Metsola, set a shepherd of willow wood, tall lassies of mountain-ash, cow-watchers of alder wood, of wild bird-cherry to drive them home, without a shepherd's driving them, without a herding-lassie's care.


I crave from the Creator leave, and confidence from God; Creator, watch my herd, preserve, kind God, my herd in every place without a hurt, without a scratch, uninjured by a neighbour's spell, that the wind sha’n’t dangerously blow, the rain not dangerously fall, that bitter cold shall hurt it not.

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Distinguished woman, Suvetar, Nature's old wife, Etelätär, pray bring thy horn from further off, from the centre of the sky; from the sky a honeyed horn, a honeyed horn from the depths of earth. Then blow upon thy horn, toot on thy famous one, that lakes of milk may issue forth, that streams of butter begin to flow. By blowing beflower the knolls, make beautiful the sandy heaths, make exquisite the abandoned fields, make pleasant the leafy groves, into liquid honey turn the swamps, and swampy pools into wort of malt, on which thou’lt feed my herd, wilt nourish up my kine, wilt increase the milk of my Hermikki, augment the yield of my Tuorikki, wilt feed them with honeyed food, wilt treat them to honeyed grass from verdant knolls, from honeyed turf, wilt feed with golden withered grass, with silver heads of grass, from golden knolls, from silver wastes; water my cattle afterwards, water them well with honeyed drink from pools of whey, from gushing springs, from foaming cataracts, from running streams, that never fail from age to age, that never come to an end at all.


Thou son of Tapio, Nyypetti, art appointed herding-lad to watch my herd on the summer cattle-grounds; watch well my herd, watch o’er the herd, give the drove to drink, give food to the wretched colts on the summer pasturage, along the swamps, along firm ground, ’long the waters of Pohjola.


Forest Nikki [v. Hitsi], forest Nikki [v. Hätsi], of the forest the golden king, grey-bearded and with a mossy

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cap! thou kindly mistress of the woods, fair woman of woods’ winding ways from the deep forest-dell arise, awake from thy pine-bough bed, to my beasts give peace, to the hoof-footed ones—repose, full freedom to the calves, to the shepherd the best control. Take care of the weaker kine, the weaker ones, the smaller ones, lest they should come to grief, should stumble into shame; let Kirjo range o’er wooded wilds, along the 'yard of God,' along the ground of Mary dear; while the evening bath is being prepared, drive thou my cattle home rejoicing to the great court-yards before conclusion of the day, before the setting of the sun.


O Katrinatar, woman fair, the girl of night, the maid of dusk, pray take five serving-girls, six who obey command, to watch my herd, to tend my kine, that the herd may freely rove, that the 'small hoofs' shall not fear, that the calves sha’n’t be alarmed, that the cold weather sha’n’t scatter them. May a wolf bar up his mouth, may the tooth of a bear be broken off from summer night to winter night. But if it pay no heed to that, construct an iron fence, erect a fence with stakes of steel round my live stock, on either side of my herd of kine. Cause the fence to reach from the earth, from the earth as far as the sky, that the son of a toad can't injure them, a 'forest cur' can't injure them this summer of Jesus, this important summer-time of God.


Ho! Ukko, lord on high, the mighty father of the sky, that livest in luck, in a bright and pleasant residence, make

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the summers beautiful, make pleasant the leafy groves, make exquisite the abandoned fields, make the morasses placable, cause the forests to be amiable, make the blue woodland mannerly. Roll forward a bulky cloud as a covering for my herd, lest death should seize it in his mouth, lest envy slash it excessively. Little indeed I have for Death to hold in his mouth, or to drive to abandoned fields, to send to an unburnt spot. When a 'backwoods wonder' prowls about, a hulking creature makes its rounds, change my dear cows into other shapes, transform my dear herd suddenly; turn into stones my cows, my beauties into heads of stumps, my hand-fed calves into gravel stones, my bullocks into knolls when encountering a 'forest dog,' when face to face with a greedy one. If that is not enough, from the sky shove a bar or a golden pole into the greedy creature's gums, put Tuoni's lock upon its jaws, the stone of Manala down its throat.


Thou son of Tapio, Nyyrikki, blue-mantled son of under-wood, cut marks on rowan trees, landmarks on mountain clefts by which my herd can go, my property can find its way. Place tall and thick-stemmed pines, broad-headed firs with branching crowns as bridges over miry spots, as patches across bad ground, across mere swamp and sloppy ground, across the shaking water-pools, that the 'crumpled horns' may tramp, the 'cloven hoofs' may trudge, may reach each one of them the smoke, 1 without a hurt, without a scratch, without their sinking in the swamp, without their sticking in the mire.

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O Pihlajatar, tiny lass, O Katajatar, lovely girl, cut a birch from a leafy grove, from a humid dell a branch, from the rear of Tapio Hill, from t’other side of Tuomi Hill; then drive the cattle to the farm, to where the bath is heating up, the homestead cattle to their home, and the 'forest herd' to the Forest Home (F. Metsola).


Earth's master! from the earth arise, ancestral master—from the field, all swordsmen—from the earth, the glaive men—from the sandy heath, the riders—from the miry pools; arise, O Forest, with thy men, with thy people, Clump of Junipers, with thy family, Clump of Firs, with thy children, Land-locked Lake, to speak on my behalf, and on my side to plead, lest evil should befall my head, destruction fall upon my pate.

If that is not enough, not quite sufficient, not enough, the Creator's golden wattled cock! come here where there is need of thee, like a golden cuckoo fly, like a dear silver dove, to speak on my behalf, and on my side to plead; stop up the judge's ears, bribe all the jurymen, make the sheriffs well disposed, bind silk across their eyes, with a bandage tie their hands, lest in their hands a pen should move, in their fists a quill should fit.


Louhi, mistress of Pohjola, distinguished woman, Penitar, from thy 'son' remove impediments, from the 'money-seeker,' all obstacle; let the pup give tongue, the dog bark openly, remove the stoppage from its nose, the block across

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its 'scenting-horn.' From far afield convey the scent, transport it from far ahead, like fire to nostrils of the dog, like smoke to the puppy's nose, from gloomy Pohjola, from under Tapio's window-hole; permit the dog to run ahead, the pup to trot with haughty gait, lead him to bruin's home or to a reindeer's flanks.



Old man, old woman of the North! Raana, mistress of Pohjola! begin to stop the bitch's mouth, to hide the puppy's tongue, lest my dog should be deceived, the 'money-seeker' make mistake, should bark at every branch of pine, should bay at every leafy bough. I do not live on boughs of pine, I fatten not on leafy boughs, I live on them that skip on boughs, that ’neath fir-branches make their way.


Field maiden, farmyard girl! O golden king of earth, here where they need thee, come from the field with thy family to close the mouth of a dog, to plug the nozzle of a whelp. Bind silk across its eyes, tie a bandage round its ears, a mushroom up one nostril thrust, an apple up the other one, lest it should scent the breath of man, perceive the smell of a full-grown man, lest it should hear a passerby, lest it should see a wanderer.


O Hiisi [v. Juutas], shut the dog's mouth up, Lempo [v. Perkele], the jawbone of the dog, fetch, Hiisi, thy tall hat, Lempo, thy broad-brimmed cap with which to stop the

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puppy's nose, to bung its 'scenting-channel' up. Place a bar before its mouth, a gag between its teeth, between its tongue-strings lay a check, so that it cannot ope its jaws, nor separate its teeth. If that is not enough, take the backmost hedge-stake of the field, the lowest railing of the fence to stop the mouth of the hunting-dog, to press with it the puppy's head, so that it can no more give tongue at any man that passes by.



Stone Kimmo [v. Kiikka]! Kammo's [v. Lempo's] son, come here where we have need of thee, with a borer bore a hole, with a chisel cut a hole through the stone in the cataract, through the evil boulder's side, so that a wooden skiff sha’n’t stick, a boat of fir shall receive no harm. King of water, Litvetti, 1 water's master beneath the stream, make the rocks to be like moss, like a pike's bladder make the boat, while passing through the surge, while traversing projecting rocks. O gracious woman, Meletar, give me thy serviceable oar with which I'll steer, I'll shoot the spell-bound streams, past a jealous person's house, under a sorcerer's window too, without my pinnace sticking fast, without my boat receiving hurt.


O golden water-king, O gracious Ahti of the sea, steer with thy sword, push with thy sheathless sword, so that my wooden craft may run, the pine-built boat may bowl along without the pinnace sticking fast, without the cutter getting fixed between those boulder-stones, among the stony rocks.

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Shove with thy breast the waves, the billows with thy bosom turn, twist in thy bands the curly ones, in thy fist collect the foam, lest they should dash against my breast, should rattle down upon my head. A stone is in the river's midst, a flat stone at the surge's crest; lower the boulder's side, press down the flagstone's flank before my scarlet skiff, out of the way of my tarry boat.


Ho! Ukko, lord on high, the god above the clouds, roll a bulky cloud, from the west send a lumpy one down on the rapid's foaming surge, into the dreadful midstream whirl; make rowing seats of steel, cast copper oars with which I'll ascend the spell-bound streams, I over hostile streams shall glide between these boulder-stones, along recesses of the rocks, lest sorcerers eat me wholly up, lest witches gash me overmuch.



Kirsti, thou maid of pains, that sittest on the stone of pain, there where three rivers flow, three [v. five] waters part, grinding away with the stone of pain, twirling the hill of pain, go gather up the pains into the hole in a bluish [v. speckled] stone, or into water roll them down, tumble them into the ocean depths, where the wind is not perceived, where the sun doth never shine.


Pain-maiden! Äijö's girl, come here where there is need of thee, holding a cup of pain, with a box of torments ’neath

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thine arm, to garner up the pains, to gather up the sufferings into a little speckled cup, into a little copper box, to dash them down into a stream, full tilt into the humid sea to generate their kind, to bring their children forth.


Good mistress, Kivutar, distinguished woman, Vammotar, take from the Maker's mouth a plume, a wing from Väinäimöinen's belt, and sweep away the awful (F. holy) 'sparks,' cause the awful (F. holy) wounds to disappear. Put the pains inside thy glove, the grievous sores inside thy mitts, then fling thy glove away on the summit of the Hill of Pain. On the summit is a bulky stone, a bulky stone, a thick flat stone. Break the stone in two, the flat stone into three. Poke the glove inside the stone, the mitts inside the flat stone's side, unite the stone together again, and roll it down to the ocean depths where the moon ne’er gleams, where the sun ne’er beams.


Pain-Maiden! Tuoni's girl, huge maiden, Akäätär! winnow the pains with a winnowing fan, sift the torments in a sieve, in order to torment the stones, to make the flat stones suffer pain. If a stone bewail its sufferings, a flat stone its calamities, ’tis better a stone should scream, ’tis better a flat stone yell, than one of a woman born, or by a creature (kave) brought to birth.


Lovely old wife of pain! good mistress, Kivutar, come here where there is need of thee, where a man is crying

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in distress. Thou art not summoned causelessly, thou art not wished for needlessly. Come to see the sufferings, to seize the pains, to make the torment cease, to still the smarts in a poor human being's skin, in the body of a mother's son. In a bundle wrap the pains, in a packet—the grievous aches, take the bundle to a stony cleft, the torments to a mountain rift, to the cellar of pains, to the room of sufferings, inside a bluish stone, inside a liver-coloured chink, where they will ne’er be heard of more, whence they will never more escape.


O Virgin Mary, mother dear, beloved mother, merciful, come here in thy fleet shoes, in thy fine skirts come fluttering, in thy white stockings wander forth, in thy black socks march proudly here to seize the pains, to remove the plagues, from spell-brought troubles to release, to remove the spell-wrought injuries. Into the water roll the pains, plunge them down to the ocean depths, apportion torments to the wind, give them to chilly wind, so that the sick may get to sleep, the weakly man may find repose.


Old wife Kave, Nature's daughter, thou 'golden' Kave and beautiful, that art the oldest of womenkind, first mother of individuals, come now to view the pains, to mitigate the calamity, to accomplish this laborious work, to remove the plague. Great pains are penetrating here, a calamity has supervened, the ground below already cracks, the sky is splitting up above while the sufferer is crying out, while the man in pain bewails himself,

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O Hiisi, come from Hiitola [v. Rise Hiisi from Hell], thou hump-backed—from the home of gods [v. Perkele from Pimentola]—come hither with thy sons, with thy sons and thy serving-girls, with thy whole nation too, with utmost speed to crush, to eat this evil thing, to lap this monstrous evil up. From Esthonia bring a scythe, from hell a mowing-iron, and put it in my right hand, with it I'll cut the evil thing, I'll hack out this impediment from the roaring man, from the groaning full-grown man.


An eagle dwells in Turja land; that eagle, famous bird, with steely beak, with iron claws, with one wing cut the water and with the other grazed the sky. Its mouth is a hundred fathoms wide, its gullet is like three cataracts, its beak is like five reaping-hooks, on its wing-tip there are eyes, others there are behind its back. O eagle, come from Turja land, from Lapland fling thyself, O bird, 'stone-talons' come to tear, 'iron-claws' to cut to bits with thine iron gums, with thy steely jaws, to devour this pain, to lap this 'broth' from a poor human being's skin, from the body of a mother's son.



O Ukko, 'golden' king, the 'silver' governor, pray bring thy golden scraping-knife, thy silver axe, with which I shall remove the growths, shall pull off 'Hiisi's filth,'

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shall shear off 'Lempo's lumps' from the narrow muscles of the neck, from the 'breathing-hole,' where it is rubbed. 1 I'll make the tumors move away, the knobs to crumble up, the lumps of gore to roll away from throttling a throat, from squeezing tight the breath, to a path that can't be known, nor be apprehended in a dream.


Maiden of swellings, Kullatar, 2 the active girl, the packer-up, pack thy 'needless packages' away, remove thy monstrous-looking things from the 'taking-place,' from where the 'breathing-hole' is rubbed. Thither conduct the 'frogs,' thither transport the wens, from the narrow muscles of the neck, from the purling veins to the branch of an apple-tree, to an oak-tree's level top.



Ho! Ukko, kindly god, the powerful father of the sky, prepare a misty atmosphere, create a tiny little cloud, send from the west a lumpy cloud, from the south let one arrive, let water drizzle from the sky, let honey trickle from the clouds on the work that's being done, on the seed that's being sown.


O Etelätär, youthful maid, the boisterous, the jolly girl, just cause a honeyed cloud to rise in the honeyed sky; from the west despatch a cloud, from the south let one arrive, lead water from the sky, rain honey, liquid honey

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down on the growing shoots of corn, on the rustling growing crops.


Old wife below the ground! Earth's mistress, the soil's old wife, cause the grass to force its way, the powerful earth to push forth shoots, earth shows no lack of strength, nor the grassy sward—of sustenance, if the Gift-givers are inclined, if the Food-mothers [v. Nature's daughters] so desire. Arise, O Earth, from slumbering, Creator's field!—from sleep, cause the straw to grow up well, the stalks to grow in size, in thousands let the tips come up, in hundreds let the branches fork, where I have ploughed, where I have sown, where I have toiled exceeding hard.


O Kasaritar, lovely girl, milk thou the snake, let the venom [v. 'milk'] drip into a copper-handled pail, into an iron milking-can; upset it for the earth's benefit, dash it against a mossy knoll. May the earth retain the milk and the Holy Ghost—the de’il (perkele).



O excellent woman, Suvetar, Nature's old wife, Etelätär, open the ground down underneath, bore holes through the headlands of the fields, cause a honeyed stream to flow, a liquid honey brook to roll on both sides of the cattle-grounds. Sink a golden' well from which the herd can drink, can suck up honeyed juice into their udders swollen

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hard, into their tight-distended teats, so that the veins begin to move, rivers of milk begin to flow, milk-rivulets to issue forth, milk-cataracts to foam, milk-pipes to spout, milk-channels to squirt—begin to give each time, begin to flow each milking-time, so that with butter the children choke, get suffocated with the cream, in spite of a person wishing harm, despite an ill-wisher's handiwork, that the milk to Mana sha’n’t be brought, that the yield of kine sha’n’t disappear.'


O excellent woman, Suvetar, Nature's old wife, Etelätär, go now and feed my Syötikki, water as well my Juotikki, increase the yield of Hermikki, augment the milk of Tuorikki, give milk to Mairikki, fresh thickened milk to Omena, from the splendid heads of grass, from the beautiful hair-grass, from verdant knolls, from hillocks moist and fresh, from the honey-dropping sward, from ground begrown with berry stalks, from the maiden of the heather's bloom, from the maiden of the grass's husk, from the milk-daughter of the cloud, from the maiden of the sky's mid-point, to make the udders full of milk, the udders always swelled, for a short woman then to milk, for a tall woman too to press.

If to the village it's been brought, has at a neighbour's been retained, fetch from the sky the herding-horns, from the clouds let fall the pipes; begin to toot upon the horns, to pipe upon the pipes, through which the milk shall run, the milk escape the restraining spell, and roll from the village like a stream, shall flow like a river to its home, shall come to its rooms as fresh-drawn milk, to its sleeping quarters as a juice, to its original abode, its former place, past the evil-wisher's mouth, to the well-wisher's mouth.

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Old wife of cattle, now arise, awake, O haltia of kine, before a sorcerer rises up or a jealous person shall awake. Ascend the buttery hill, to the summit of the milky hill; from Mana fetch my milk, my milk from him that keeps it back. Descend the hill with a flask, hurry down with a keg; the milk to Mana must not go, nor my cream to Tuonela.


Poor Para! come to life, butter and milk to bring. O 'Stick-shanks' come to life, 'stick-shanks' with the yarn-ball head, harden the crust upon the milk, thicken the film of curdled milk. Hither, poor Para, come, to churn with noisy platter-dash, into fat work up the milk, into yellow butter turn the fat, beat out the very smallest drop so that the butter harden well. Luck-bringer, hither come, if thou in coming bring good luck, for thee ’twill all the better be, a better present wilt thou get: each month I shall convey, shall place for thee as recompense at the field's end a little calf, and into a bush I'll push it too.



O Jesus, wash my little girl, my 'wee snow-sparrow' purify from women's and from harlot's talk, from the facetiousness of men, from the tattle of mustachioed ones, from the tattle of the beardless ones. Wash my 'snow-sparrow' clean, make white a woman's child, by washing make her bloom for the moon, make her sweet for the sun. Arouse to action, Love, cause her renown to spread, for

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men to take a fancy to, for full-grown men to ask about. Whoe’er looks at her from above, or gazes at her close at hand, may he look with a honeyed glance, may he smile with eyes of love.


Jesus! thy little bullfinch,' wash, make white thy tender babe, wash her as brilliant as the moon, to be enchanting as the sun, as white as the ocean's foam, as brown as a bulrush of the sea; cause golden ornaments to chink, and silver ornaments to clink; with the golden shirt of kings, the silver cloths of lords, may she be clothed and be arrayed, to gain the delight of men, to be run after by the youths, to be desired by wooing swains, to be observed by every one, by an important suitor to be seen, by a young unmarried man, by man and woman too, yes, by a full-grown married man.


O Virgin Mary, mother dear, beloved mother, merciful, arise to awaken Love, to cause Renown to blossom forth; Now is the time for Love to move, time for Renown to blossom forth. O free the lass from spell-wrought harm, from village people's powerful words, from tittle-tattle, jabbering, from machinations of old hags. Break off a bath-switch, in a copse, in honeyed Metsola, close to three rapids, from the highest birchen trees; cut up a tree of mountain-ash, break into bits the 'murder' tree; 1 stealthily heat a bath, hurriedly prepare the fire, cause nature's steam to rise, a love-inspiring steam to float through the stony stove, through the heated roof-ridge beam; soften a honeyed bath-

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switch well on a honeyed flattish stone, a bottle of pure water fetch, bring some of golden hue, wherewith 'bullfinch' shall wash herself, the 'wee snow-sparrow' cleanse herself, the 'village flower' shall scour herself, 'earth's chosen one' shall wash her white, to get well thought of by the men, to be desired by wooing swains. Hither let come without a fear, arrive without an injury, the best and not the worst, the handsomest of warriors, the best of the parsonage, the smartest of the village folk; if in these parts he can't be found, O bring him from some other part, from six church parishes away, or from across eight chapelries.


O Virgin Mary, mother dear, pure and with a mother's look, eternal mother of the earth, the benefactor of all time, release the girl from her distress, my daughter from useless spells; dig water from a rock, let water from a fountain pour by means of thy golden stick, thy silver staff; wash my little one therein, my 'wee snow-sparrow' purify, remove the pig-skin from her eyes, the dog-skin from her ears, the wicked gossip from her head, the villagers' great sorceries. Spread thy lovely linen cloth, throw thy golden cloak about this youthful maid, round the figure of this child, blue silk upon her eyes, upon her temples threads of gold, good silver trinkets on her head, to honour the distinguished girl. Cause Love to issue from the maid, Love to ascend from out the girl, cause Love to rise and float about, her renown to blossom forth, cause her to glisten like the moon, to sparkle like a star, to turn the minds of men, to set on fire their hearts, draw them towards this girl, to this child's side, till their senses

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fume like honey and blaze up like a fire. Let come from far away, let hurry from remoter parts the best of the throng of lads, the smartest of the lot, to this young maiden's house, on horseback along the road, by water in a boat or on snow-shoes o’er the hill.


Rise, maiden, from the spring, O 'grey-eyes' from the pool, to be a darling woman's help, the comrade of a famous wife. Arise and water fetch, some water from the spring of Love [v. of Vento]. Pray give me water as a loan for ever, for as long as the moon sheds a golden light, with which I shall my 'bullfinch' wash, my wee 'snow-sparrow' purify, shall beautify 'earth's chick,' make her luxuriant in form and beautiful of countenance, make bright her eyes, make her temples bloom, make nice her breasts, make her bosom full, to be observed by all, to be a wonder to herself.


Arise, O Love, to hover round, Honour of maidens! to advance, maiden's Renown! to blossom forth o’er six church parishes, through seven parishes and through eight towns. Here is a beauty unbeheld, a splendid maiden unbetrothed, a rosy blonde not led away, a famous daughter that's unknown: She was not wed in the wedding year, nor affianced in the wooer's year, last summer she was not carried off. Hey! Love, wake up! O Love, arise without being lifted by a cord, without being hauled by a tarry rope, to turn men's inclinations, to dispose their thoughts, to set on fire their hearts, to make their bellies seethe, their hearts to flicker like a flame, to sparkle like a spark and that it shall not cease at night, shall not diminish

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in the dark. O Love, arise to dance about, to vibrate like a fiery brand, arise without being conjured up, without being cursed bestir thyself, for moons have risen, suns have risen, yet still thou hast not risen up. So rise at once, remove the cloud that shrouds the girl, cause the 'sun' to shine, the Creator's 'moon' to gleam. Fetch men from far away, pray seek them from remoter parts, conduct them from a hundred isles, from a hundred castles’ environs, unto this maid's vicinity, this daughter's close proximity.


Old man of rut! old wife of rut (kirki)! raise Kirki from a rutting-swamp, from a rutting-mountain top, Erotic Heat from a rutting-heath, cow's bulling-lust from an alder grove, from a copse the lewdness of a bull, a stallion's passion from its stall, a mare's hot passion from its shed, a cat's hot passion from a stove, a little kitten's from a crib, from under a bench a dog's desire, a puppy's from beneath a form, a wolf's more passionate desire, the rougher passion of a bear, the quicker passion of a fox, the lust of a swiftly-scudding hare, the black raven's lust as well, and the passion of a dark-grey hawk, in order that this girl be wed, this beauty may be beheld. Raise into ecstasy his mind, 1 to intoxication—his desire, take from the glowing coals a coal, from a stove of stone a heated stone, into a flame ignite his heart, his belly into glowing flame, that his hinder parts shall move, that his hips shall sway; the sinews of his back shall twitch, his toes get tremulous, his nails begin to itch, his hands to scratch, so

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that he get no sleep at night, and no repose at all by day, unless he see our darling maid, and make acquaintance with the girl.


Poke, evil one, thy twirling stick, Hiisi!—thy pole for stirring coals between the pair of loving ones; may an icy stone from ’neath the earth, may the sultriness of Christmastide begin to freeze their hearts, to give their inward parts a chill, that from each other they shall part and one another shall not know, shall neither know nor recognise nor make an effort to unite. There are three icy stones, three swarthy snakes, three fragments of a bath-house stove with which I'll walk between the pair, shall nine times walk and force the sinners’ hearts apart from one another for all their life, for all their time, for all their days, for all their term.


O Hikityttö, Hiisi's girl, come here where there is need of thee, make tough the iron, give the knife the hue of wheat; sharpen the edge with sweat (kiki), with honey's froth besprinkle it, for the blade to cut and not to tear nor cause the blood to flow. Into the flesh if it should slip, into the blood should turn aside, smear honey on the iron edge, sweet ointment on the wound.



O golden forest-king, the feather-hatted woodland lord! Kind forest-mother that givest gifts, old mistress of the

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feathered flock I O tiny little forest maid, the fair-cheeked maid of swarms of birds, the rearer of a hundred broods, that rockest to sleep a thousand swarms, lead thy covies here, thy bevies and thy flocks of birds, above nine men in search of them, above eight men that look for them. I am the chiefest searcher here, I am the best that looks about, of the nine men in search of birds, of the eight men that look about. Make flutter and make fly this way thy flocks of birds before the man that seeks at night, the rover of the woods by day. Conduct thy blackcock here, thy grey-hens here transport; into the trees may the blackcock fly to bill and coo at my decoy, may the blackcocks take delight in it, may the grey-hens cluck. Bind up their wings with twine, confine their instruments of flight, entwine their legs with string, roll up their toes in wax, that with their wings they cannot fly, that with their feet they cannot run till I am ready with my bow, till I can turn to my hand-bow. 1


Lord of the wooded wilds, the island's oldest man, old man of 'feathers' with rumpled beard! O kindly mistress of Metsola, O Hollow Fir, 2 old wife of down! bring a 'feather' from the genial land, send a 'downy feather' from the west to jerk my honeyed snares, to spring my honeyed nooses set on a honeyed knoll in the luscious wooded wilds. From the copse take a switch, from the scrub a

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copperheaded one, from the coppice chase the birds and drive them from the abandoned fields to flutter with a whirring sound, till for their wings there is no place. May the twigs sink down as the birds approach these trapping grounds, these passages 1 that must be trod. Bind round their mouths with silk, twist their heads awry, lest they damage my flaxen noose, lest they destroy my hempen snares.


Laaus, the master of Pohjola! grant me to take a full-grown bird 2 from these clean sticks, from the whitened twigs, 3 as a present for the folk at home. I'll give thee thanks for it, I'll bow before the famous man, for it extol thy worthiness, if thou wilt give a full-grown bird 2 as a present for the folk at home.

§ 137. ON GOING TO BED. 4

Welcome! O Earth! welcome! dry land! Welcome! O master of the earth! welcome to him that welcome gives! With the leave of the Earth, I go to bed, with the leave of the Earth, with the leave of a Tree, with the leave of all the house, in terror of the holy field. 5 May the Earth be a good defence, the Omnipotent a guard, may the Creator lock the door, may a saint draw-to the bolt, may Jesus be a shield, Mary—a sword. May Mary lull to

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may Jesus raise me up to thank my God, to give sleep, to give Jesus praise.


Dry land's old wife! from the earth arise, Primeval Master!—from the field, in aid of an only son, as comrade of a famous man, to travel jollily with me, to help unharnessing the horse, in taking the collar off, and the bow between the shafts, on the journey of a famous lad, during the drive of a splendid man [v. wedding party].



When for the forest I set out, I, a full-grown man, intend to hunt, O Forest, take me as thy man, as thy full-grown man, O Tapio, as arrow-boy, 1 O Wilderness, as an extra comrade, Knoll! 2 Take a fellow to salute, to behold the heavenly bow, to greet Great Bear and to eye the stars.

Forest! be kind; be friendly, Wilderness! be gracious, Air of the gods! be well inclined, dear Tapio! kind Mistress! be well disposed; be complacent to my men, be propitious to my dogs, guide a fellow to a wooded isle, transport him to the knoll, whence quarry can be procured, the journey's object can be gained, where heads shall be portioned out, portions shall be distributed.


O Kuutar, bake a suet cake, a honeyed bannock, Päivätär, with which I'll make the Forest kind, make Backwoods

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well disposed on my hunting days, at my periods for seeking game.

Forest! be kindly to my men; Backwoods! be friendly to my dogs, the men with us are half-grown men, the archers are uncertain shots, the dogs with us are puppy dogs, our bows are sticks, the arrows tipped with wood, they will not carry far, the shooting instruments won't hit. Of honey let the forest smell, the blue backwoods—of mead, of melted butter—the sides of swamps, of wort—the abandoned fields. Backwoods! let the cuckoo call; O Forest, on the zither play, so that the 'gold' 1 shall lend an ear, the 'silver' take account of it under a pine with branching head, under a bushy fir.


O Grove, be kind! be friendly, Wilderness! O blue Backwoods, be amiable! that I may ramble through the woods, may jostle through the wooded wilds. Forest, be friendly to my men! Backwoods, be kindly to my dogs! be appeased by these peace-offerings, by these inducements be mollified, with which the Creator was appeased, the Omnipotent was mollified. Marry our men, introduce our full-grown men to the pleasant daughters of the woods, to the downy-breasted chicks. The eyelashes of other men are not more smooth, nor the eyebrows more magnificent than those that our men have. The gait of other men, the silken ribbons on their socks, the silver laces to their breeks are not more elegant. The bows of other men are not formed out of gold, nor of silver are their narrow skates, nor of copper are their skating staffs.

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[paragraph continues] The hunting dogs of other men are not more dear (F. golden), more dear or more renowned, than those that our men have.


Old man of the forest with light grey beard, of the forest the golden king! O forest-mistress, Mielikki! Miiritär, forest-daughter-in-law! mount up on a sloping birch, ascend a bent-down alder-tree, to listen to my songs, whether my songs are suitable. Gird the forests with a sword, place a glaive in the backwoods’ hand, clothe the forest in homespun cloth, dress in German linen the wooded wilds, array in coats the aspen-trees, the alder-trees in lovely clothes, with silver adorn the firs, deck the pines with gold, put flowers on the heads of the pines, and silver on the heads of firs, gird round old pines with copper belts, the firs with silver belts. Clothe them as in the days of old, in thy periods for giving gifts, on my days for seeking game, and at the times I went to shoot. When to the forest I had gone, had attained the far backwoods, had ascended to the wilderness, had arrived on a mountain top, the aspens were in silver belts, the birches decked with golden flowers, pine branches glistened like the moon, the spreading fir-tops like the sun, like the moon the famous lad shone forth, like the sun—the doughty full-grown man.


Old man of the knoll with golden breast, with a hat of twigs, with a mossy cap! O forest-mistress, Mielikki! O Tapio's daughter, Tellervo [v. Annikki], the forest-daughter, the kindly maid, the tiny little forest lass I blue-mantled old wife of the copse I red-stockinged mistress of the swamp! O lovely being of the heath! show me the path,

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open the door, proceed to indicate the path, to give instructions for the way, to set up posts along the road and landmarks make. O son of Tapio, Nyyrikki, spruce fellow with a tall red cap, cut marks along the country side, establish landmarks on the hills, that I, though stupid, can find the way, I, though a stranger, can repair to the hunting-grounds of other men, to special woods of full-grown men. Make a slow-footed man to scud, by the breast of his jacket lug him on, by the hole of his snow-skate shove him on, lead him by the ferule of his staff across morasses, across firm land, across the backwoods of Pohjola; conduct him to a wooded isle, transport him to the knoll where 'gold' will afford him sport, 'silver' will make him glad, where pines have flowers on their heads, the firs have silver on their heads, birches have golden earrings on, alders are dressed in lovely clothes, the aspen-trees—in pale grey stuff, the heather flowers—in gold.


O forest-mistress, Mielikki, famed 'golden buckle of the woods,' pray come along to give a hand, to stretch thy right hand forth on these my days for seeking game, at the times I go to hunt. Take the golden keys from the ring at thy side, step to the storehouse on the hill, into the cellar lightly trip, open quickly Tapio's magazine, disturb the forest-tower, set free the gold to move about, the 'silver' to wander forth towards a white man, the colour wholly of the birch. 1 But pray be on thy guard that the quicker ones don't slip away, for tardy I am at snowshoeing, am slow at shoving along.

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O forest-mistress, Mielikki, the mother with a lovely face, get ready my reserve, make my allotted share leap up in the blue backwoods, at the centre of the 'golden' knoll. Open quickly the honeyed chest, disturb the honeyed box, set free a drove to run about, a file of animals to skip before the man in search of them, at the steps of him that craves.

If thou thyself be disinclined, then send thy serving-maids, direct thy thralls, command the obeyers of commands. Thou art no mistress, so to speak, if thou keepest no serving-maids, keepst not a hundred serving-maids, a thousand that obey commands, that keep watch over all the herd, that tend the forest animals, that regulate the lengthy flock and guide the great string of animals. I keep a single serving-lass that is in her movements brisk, is energetic at her work and open-handed with her gifts.


King 1 of the forest, Kuuritar, that maketh hoofs, that bendeth paws, open thy 'money' magazine, unbolt thy store, set free a drove to run about, a file of animals to skip; let a 'golden fur-coat' issue forth, a homespun cloth' come trotting down along the silver path, along the copper track from the wild creature's place of birth, from the rearing-ground of 'precious pelts' (F. money hair), to the places where I set my gins, to the passages that must be trod. Whoe’er is quick at galloping, keep in check with reins, with a bit keep straight, whoe’er's not quick at galloping, strike with a switch to quicken him,

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with a rope's end give a thwack, with a cock's beak tickle him, and prod him with a golden spur.


O Ukko, the golden king, the silver governor, take a golden club or a copper hammer from the end of a silver spar, from the head of a copper nail, and with it beat the wilderness, bang the gloomy wooded wilds, that into squirrels pine branches turn, into otters—densely wooded wilds. Good is a beaten wilderness, and gloomy wooded wilds well banged, so that a dog can run ahead, a whelp can work aright.


Old Ukko with the rumpled beard, O hollow fir with fir-twig hat, pray come and beat the wilderness, make its edges shake on a summer night, the first afternoon. Belabour, Ukko, a young tree, make stumps resound with thuds, with a fiery sword, with a golden club. Drive out the creatures to the edge, to the openest abandoned fields, from the end of every jutting point, from the corner of each wilderness, on my days for seeking game, at my periods for setting traps.


Give me, Ukko, of thy 'ewes,' of thine own 'rams,' bring forth thy 'gold,' all thy 'drooping ears.' Bring them without a fear, without suspicion let them rove; those that are resting in the grove, that are reposing under boughs, that are sleeping on a knoll, are paddling the bottom of a brook, send in threes from the forest vales, in fives and sixes from the glades along the golden cattle-roads, along the silver paths, where the bridges are laid with silk, bridges with silk,

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with velvet—swamps, wet spots with homespun cloth, with Silesian linen—dirty spots, with linen from Germany, with a fringe of homespun stuff.


Give, dearest God, to a supplicating man; give him ten animals (F. hoofs), diverse in aspect and in hue. One skin won't make a coat of fur, no rug of fur is got from two; 1 unless some hundreds should be got, some thousands hither should be brought; a thousand into a coat will go, a hundred into a rug will fit.

Pray don't be angry, God, Earth's Ruler, don't be furious; at least in my life permit, in my own time let it occur to see them with mine eyes, to touch them with my hands. For stones I shall not give thee thanks, for stumps I sha’n’t prostrate myself, for willows certainly sha’n’t serve, for boughs of fir I coax thee not; I make request for 'hoofs,' I pray incessantly for 'feet,' I ask for those that go on hoofs, that run about on nimble feet, not for the best, nor for the worst, for a medium quality I ask.

Give, dearest God, bestow on a man, on me, give as thou gayest mine ancestors, to that huge family, enough to eat, enough to drink, presents enough to the village folk; from the day's toil release a child, 2 procure him rest at eventide, when the cattle are coming home, when the woods of pine are turning grey.


O Tapio's daughter, Annikki [v. Tyytikki], the tiny little forest-lass with down-like shirt, with a fine spun shirt, the

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woman of complexion fair, with shouts awake the forest-king, arouse the backwoods’ haltia, to give me of his precious ones, his animals (F. hoofs) of every hue; play a tune on a honeyed pipe, pipe on a delicious pipe into the comely mistress's ear, the gracious mistress of the woods, so that she speedily shall hear, shall arise from sleep, since she won't listen in the least, not even rarely will awake, although I beg incessantly, keep murmuring with a golden tongue.

Lass Annikki that keeps the keys! Eva, the tiny little serving-maid! advance to the magazine with the delightful mistress's leave; fling open the magazine of gifts, the lock-less doorway of the loft. Thou art no lass at all, no lassie of the keys indeed, unless thou open the magazine, and, having opened it, give forth some greater and some smaller game, some of every sort of hue. Twist a ruddy thread on thy ruddy cheek, and draw it across the stream, across the stream of Pohjola, for the animals to run upon, for the 'money-pelts' to skip along in front of the man in search of them, before the steps of the man that walks.


O forest-daughter, delightful girl, O Tapio's daughter, Tuulikki, chase the wild creatures out to run from the forest-castle slopes, make them to scamper, make them scud for my good luck. When the wild creatures reach the track, hurry them on along the track, place thy two palms as a fence on either side, lest the wild creatures dash away, the forest-herd should bounce aside, or on a by-path should diverge. When they look over it, then raise the fence; when they look down, then lower down the fence; when the animals don't move, then leave the fence as it is;

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if the wild creatures dash away, or on a by-path should diverge, lift them up on the path by the ears, bring them back on the track by the horns. If a fallen tree oppose their course, shove it aside; if trees lie across the path, smash them in half; if a fence oppose itself, prostrate the fence; if a river chance to be in front, a rivulet—across the path, cast down thy silk to be a bridge, as a foot-bridge—scarlet cloth, along which the drove can run, for a path for them to go across. Bring them across the shallow sounds, over the waters draw them on, as a sail employ a tail, or use a pizzle as a sail.


O Tapio's daughter, Tuulikki, the famous beauty of the woods, O Pihlajatar, little lass, short daughter, Tuometar, O kindly mistress, Hongatar, fair wife of the forest-environs, from a spinny take a switch, a fir-branch from a clump of firs, chase the wild creatures out to run before a miserable lad. If in this direction none appear, pray seek them further off, from Lapland's gloomy wooded wilds, from the utmost border of the north, from under Kuha-vuori's top, from Kuusivaara's peak, from near lake Imantra, from the boundary land of the Turja Fell; more sloping is the country here, more flowing are the waters here; here in a straight line pathways stretch, here gates fall down.


O lively woman, Vitsäri, O Tapio's daughter, Tellervo, take a whip of mountain ash, a cattle-scourge of juniper from the rear of Tapio's hill, from Tuomi-vaara's further side, and with it drive the timorous, hurry along the younger ones. Whichever is slow to run, at starting is a

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lazy one, quicken up with a switch, drive with shouts, with a crack of the lash, so that the switch shall whiz, the willow-top shall make a crash; give a swipe across the sides, or across the withers strike, at the forehead aim no blow, don't thwack upon the skull.


Old wife of the forest with lovely hair, 'Gold hair-plait' of a hundred woods! O honeyed maiden of Metsola, old man of the forest with flowing beard! old wife of Tapio, Nyrkytär! and forest-Tapio himself! O son of Tapio, Pinneys, don't hold them back, don't hold them fast: Christ christened thee, thee the Omnipotent baptized in the middle of the forest-field, to tend the forest animals. Fetch me some forest-ale, that I may forest-honey drink; in the forest much ale is found, in the forest is honey sweet, myself have seen it to be true, when as a young man I was there. Send forth the droves to run, the forest animals to rush, without suspicion let them come, without precaution—bound along before the man in search of them, up to the steps of him that begs.


O Pohja's open-handed [v. blue-mantled] wife, Laaus, the master of Pohjola! O Sinisirkku, Pohja's maid, O Pohja's daughter, Pohja's son, O kindly mistress, Hyypiö, distinguished woman, Varvutar! stir up thine animals, frighten away thy herd from sleeping in the woods, from slumbering under boughs of fir, reposing in the leafy grove, from snoozing on the sward; induce thy droves to run, the forest animals to bolt, cause the elks to scud along, grand reindeer to hurry up, their legs to take a sudden spring,

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their hoofs to move with rapidity to my spots for catching animals, to these passes where I look for game. In profusion let them come and hurry with speedy foot, along morasses, over lands, along long streams, through the forest dense, across the thinly wooded wilds, across the leafy wooded hills, across the lofty mountains too; then when they hither have arrived, when they have reached their journey's end, do thou, Mist-maiden, maid of Fog, the 'Leaf-bud,' 'Ship-borne Yarn' [v. O Tapio's daughter, Luonnotar], 1 with a sieve sift mist, keep scattering fog before the wild creature's face, when nine paces off, rub fog upon its eyes, let mist descend upon its pate till I am ready with my bow, have arranged myself to shoot.


O forest-youth with a golden hat! O forest-mistress, Juonetar [v. king of the forest, Kuippana], transport thy 'gold,' induce thy 'silver' to approach to my spots for catching animals, these passes where I look for game. Send the best of thy flock, of thy herd—the most superb from the blue backwoods’ interior, from a liver-coloured hole, from Kuha-vuori's peak, from Paksu-vaara's slopes, from near the rapids of Imantra, from Kana-saari's deep recess. From a spinny take a switch, a birch from a forest-dell, send forth the drove to run, cause a 'money-pelt' to break away. Any one too inert to run, make lively with the switch, correct with the birchen bough; of any one that is quick to run raise the mouth with a bit, with halters lift its head. Permit the game to run this way, a 'money-pelt' to rush headlong. More sloping is

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the country here, a milder climate here is found; here rivers flow, here waters fall.


O Hiisi's little boy that rides a good two-year-old, take thy golden spur from the end of a silver shelf, from a golden chest, from a silver box, tickle with it the wild creatures' flanks, into their armpits dig it too; cause the drove to run, the wild animals to caper round towards the man in search of them, the stately full-grown man, in copper harness, with golden rings.



Thyself, aërial God, thou Spirit Lord Jesus, harness thy colt, prepare thy sleigh, seat thyself at the back and drive in thine ornamented sleigh through the bones and flesh, through the loosened veins; bring together bone and flesh, unite the ends of veins, place gold in the fissure of the bone and silver in between the flesh, flesh where the bone has been contused, blood where a vein has broken through. Where a bone is smashed, fasten thereto another bone; where flesh has been removed, insert more flesh; where a vein has slipt from its place, unite the vein to its place again; where blood has leaked, there cause fresh blood to flow; where the skin has broken off, cause skin to grow upon the place. Bless to their place, in their place adjust the bone to bone, the flesh to flesh, the joints to corresponding joints, to their former place, their earlier site, so that the place shall not be felt, so that the site no longer smarts.

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Come, maiden, from above the air, the maiden from the sky's mid-point, in a copper boat, in a copper skiff. Row with honeyed oars, pull hard in the honeyed punt on either side of the wound from iron, of the injuries produced by steel. Row a boat composed of veins, cause a boat of bone to glide through the bones, through the joints, through places where the flesh has gone; row through the fissures in the bone, along the crevices in joints; row through the bone to remove the pain, through the flesh to remove the smarts. Lengthen the veins that are short, shorten those over long, into their place arrange the veins, make every end of even length, arrange the large veins mouth to mouth, the small veins end to end, the threadlike veins in dove-tail form, and the arteries vis-à-vis. Then a slender needle take with a silken thread in the needle's eye, with the slender needle sew, with the tin needle stitch, knot up the ends of the veins, with silken ribbons tie them up.


O beauteous woman of the veins, the beauteous woman Suonetar, the lovely one that spinneth veins from the golden tuft of a beautiful spinning-staff on a copper spinning-rock, that weavest a cloth of veins in a wee corner, in a nook, come hither in my necessity, approach when summoned here with a skein of veins in the belt, under thine arm a bundle of skin, to tie up veins, to knot the ends of veins in wounds, in gashes, in rents, in holes.


O Tuoni's son with ruddy cheek, twist quickly ’gainst thy left thigh, ’neath thy right hand a scarlet cord with which

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[paragraph continues] I'll close the raw, shall draw together the bleeding cut, shall bind together the veins, shall tie the ends of veins in knots. If I'm unable properly to close the bleeding cut, tie up the veins thyself, join together the ends of veins, that the veins can't move, that the blood can't flow.


O mother dear, Saint Catharine, come hither in nimble shoes, in thy black stockings proudly march, in thy white stockings wander forth, with red shoe-laces hurry along, with thy blue ribbons hasten here, regard thy creature close at hand, nigh at hand—what thou hast made. A ram [v. a goat] indeed, a wanton one, has already done a shameful deed, has begun his ugly work, has set to work at boorish deeds.



O bee, the nimble 'bird,' the king of the meadow flowers, fly thither, where I bid, whither I bid and I command, along one sea, o’er a second one, a little slanting o’er a third, to an island in the open main, to a skerry in the sea. There lies a girl asleep, a 'tinny breast'—fatigued on the honey-dropping sward, at the edge of a honeyed field; a luscious grass is at her side, red clover—in her lap. Into the sweet stuff poke thy wing, into the honey thy tongue's thick-end, bring luscious juice upon thy wing, honey on thy tongue's string from the splendid head of grass, from the cup of the golden flower, as ferment for the ale, as bane for the new-made drink.

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My little martin, my wee 'bird,' my lovely little 'money-pelt,' go thither, where I command, whither I bid and I command, to the North's remotest fields, to the trampled ground of Lapland's bairns, where the mares fight, the stallions equally compete; with thy paws collect the yeast, into thy hands let flow the froth from the mouth of the fighting mare, of the stallion that contends, as ferment for the ale, as yeast for this small beer.


Creator, grant! accord, O God, grant me the luck to live, accord that I shall live in peace, shall ever comfortably dwell on the border of my field, in the centre of my farm, to give me joy of an afternoon, in the forenoon to afford delight. Be on thy children's side, be a constant helper of thy bairns, a continual support by night, a watchful guard by day, that the sun shall not in anger shine, that the moon shall not in anger gleam, that the wind shall not in anger blow, that the rain shall not in anger fall, that bitter cold no frost-bites cause, that the hard weather shall not harm. Construct an iron fence, a castle of stone erect around my property, on both sides of my farm from the earth extending to the sky, reaching from the sky to earth, as my abode, my only one, for my protection, my support, by help of which I'll do my work, by its aid o’er waters row, so that no foe shall eat too much, no enemy snatch much away.

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Tapio's daughter, Annikki, Tapio's girl with honeyed mouth! stoop down to 'milk,' prepare to give on this my day for catching game, on my hunting days. Open wide the storehouse doors, set ajar the garret doors, throw out my share upon a bough, my portion on a bending tree, by fives from the dense young scrub, by sixes from the forest knolls, by sevens from the woodland ridge, by eights from clumps of juniper, in front of my dogs, my dogs, my men. Induce my dog to bark, let my hound give tongue; stretch a scarlet thread, spin with a buzzing sound blue thread, along which an arrow can ascend to a young squirrel's brow, to a 'cone-biter's' nose, to the nostrils of 'blue-wool.'


O forest-mistress, Mielikki, kind forest-mother that giveth gifts, the honeyed maiden of Metsola, the golden forest-king! give something to me to shoot, some larger 'hoofs,' some smaller 'hoofs,' some 'hoofs' of medium size; cause the hillocks to resound, bring down the squirrels to the dells, chase the 'money' to the forest's edge, that I can strike them with a staff, can seize them with my hand and fist. If I can't strike them with a staff, thyself direct them to a branch, thyself support my bow, steady my gun thyself, that I can shoot the squirrel on the branch, the 'forest-cat' upon its swing, with which I shall my tribute pay, shall carry away my receipt for rent.

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Rahko in iron boots makes a 'stony hill' revolve. O Rahko, put the incubus under a rafter, ’neath a beam, ’neath an iron roof, ’neath a tongueless bell. If that is not enough, should it pay no heed at all, I have a weighing-beam, a steelyard ’neath my back, under my head—a sack, a sack below, another above, into which put the incubus, collect together 'Hiisi's dead.'



O Virgin Mary, mother dear, beloved mother, compassionate, spin a blue thread from thy golden [v. blue] distaff bound with flax; from above a long belt of cloud, from the sky let fall the thread, with which I'll smash the scab, with which I'll press the swellings down; I'll lower the rising lumps, with the finger without a name, 1 on a human being's skin, on the body of a mother's son. Let tumours grow on trees, tumours on trees, on the earth—excrescences, watery blisters upon shoots, boils charged with blood on sapling firs, not on a human being's skin, on the body of a mother's son.


Brown maid [v. smith] of scabs, bad mother [v. king] of boils! snatch from a pig the snout, seize the tush of a foal, with which thou’lt flog the scab, with which thou’lt squeeze the boils from this human skin, from the body of a mother's

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son. Pluck thine evil scabs, to serve as berries [v. strawberries], take them to the earth, to serve as berried knolls—to swamps, to a land devoid of strawberries; in thy mouth dissolve the scab, cook the matter on thy tongue.


Red maiden, Pullitar! on thy left knee twist a scarlet cord, with which I shall bind the roots, while squeezing the scabs, while pressing the boils.


To be covered with boils is bad, to live covered with sores—a plague; old Väinämöinen, reliable, the diviner of all time! raise thy paddle [v. sword] from the sea, thy 'shovel'—from the wave, with which thou It smash the scab, wilt thresh the abscesses away from a poor human being's skin, from the body of a mother's son.

§ 147. AGAINST VERY SHARP FROST (pakkanen).


Sharp Frost, the son of Puhuri [v. Pusuri, v. Näserva], winter's benumbing son! don't freeze my nails, don't demand my toes, don't nip with frost my head, don't touch my ears. Thou hast enough to freeze, many to nip with frost, without frost-biting a human skin, the body of a mother's son.

Begone! freeze snaky fields, freeze swamps, freeze land, the water-willows nip, attack the knots on aspen-trees, cause roots of birch to ache, bite the sapling firs; refrigerate hot stones, flat stones that are burning hot, iron rocks and hills of steel, the wildly-rushing Vuoksi falls, the frightful rapids

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of Imatra, the margin of the Northern sea, the declivities of the boundless sea, the swirling water's orifice, the terrific midstream broil.


O Virgin Mary, mother dear, beloved mother, compassionate, bring me a soft fur-coat, fetch a hairy coat of wool, with which I'll shelter me, poor wretch, so that the sharp frost cannot bite. Into my stockings cast some fire, into my tatters—bits of coal, so that the sharp frost cannot bite, that the hard weather touch me not. Fetch hither a misty cloud, bring a rainbow-coloured one, shake a warm covering—a mist on the swamps, a mist o’er the land; it is pleasant to live in mist, in a district wrapt in fog.

If still a gangrene should ensue, let a scrap of butter, another of fat, be laid on the spots sharp frost has nipt, on the place the hard weather touched.


In the North is the reindeer's origin, from Lapland is the creature sent; then, rock-like, bent, curved antlers grew on the reindeer's splendid brow, on the reindeer's powerful head. Crone of the North, with powerful nails, with powerful nails, with an axe of bone, that maketh 'hoofs,' 1 that bendeth 'paws,' throw open the iron chest, slip back the bolt upon the game, send forth the game to run in the path of the lad that hunts, from the North's remotest fields, from Lapland's level tracts to my places for taking game, to my traps that should be trod.

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Ho! Ukko, God on high, the capable and honest man, that dwells below the sky, that abides above the clouds, let drop thy pincers from a cloud into my right hand, the hafts of which are of earthly worms, the points—of variegated snakes; the sorcerer's 'arrows' with them I'll lift, I'll draw the 'bloody needles' forth from a wretched human being's skin, from the body of a woman's (kapo) son.


Smith Ilmarinen, thou thyself the everlasting hammerer, make tiny little tongs, pincers that are very small, with which I'll lift out 'Lempo's arrow,' shall extract the 'bloody knife' from a poor human being's skin, from the body of a mother's son. This man to Mana must not go, his long-haired one to Tuonela, without being slaughtered by disease, removed by ordinary death.


Old crone below the earth (manner)! Boy of the field's profoundest depths! come to watch quite close at hand, to pay attention nigh at hand, lest Death should eat too much, Disease should reap o’ermuch. Make great exertions with thy knee, resolve with thy finger-points to lift the sorcerer's arrow out, to summon back the shafts; with thy back-teeth seize hold of the sorcerer's arrow-knob, of the end of Piru's shafts.

If no heed at all is paid to that, raise from the earth thy men, thy heroes from the hard dry land, to help a well-beloved man, to surround a lonely one.

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Blind crone [v. whore] of Pohjola [v. Väinölä], Ulappala's blinded hag! come to lift the arrows out, to disengage the spears, to wrench the shooting-irons out, to remove the jagged points from a naked skin, from one without a stitch of clothes.

And if no heed is paid thereto, in the land of the North an old man lives, with stony nails, with iron teeth; ’tis he that draweth arrows out, that loosens spears, that extracteth jagged points. Approach, old man, to take, O 'Stony-nails' to cast, O 'Steely jaws' to snatch, O 'Teeth of iron' to wrench—come lift the sorcerer's arrows out, the spears of Keito disengage with thy stony nails, with thine iron teeth, to prevent their stinging with pleurisy, to prevent their racking one with pain. Snap the arrows in two, into three pieces smash the spear, into creases squash its point (F. nose).


An eagle dwells in Turjaland that has serviceable claws, that has five talons on its toes resembling five reaping-hooks, its mouth with fire burns, its throat is aglow with flame, at the tip of the wing there are bright eyes, organs of sight at the feather's end. Come, eagle, from Turjaland, from Lapland cast thyself, O bird, that strikest blows incessantly, come and strike this blow as well; with one of thy talons strike the underside of a stone, raise the other foot and strike at Keito's spear, at the jagged spike of Aijö's son, at the end of the arrow's knob; the bloody arrow carry off, the pointed needle snatch from out of a roaring man, from out of a moaning full-grown man.

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O Lempo, take thy flying shafts, O Piru, take thine arrows back, O limping fellow—thy pointed darts; jerk out thine arrows by the shafts, the sooner the better too, when I have had my say. The bloody needles convey away, tug out the aggravating stings, which thou madest formerly, maybe from the fragments of an evil oak, from the morsels of a brittle tree.

O Keito, launch thy little spears, provide thy shafts with plumes, and, Piru, cast thy pikes on mighty battle-fields, on the slaughter-plains of men, down a croaking raven's throat, down the mouth of a cawing crow, to be by the raven carried off, to be borne to a distance by the crow to thy family, to thy place of birth, to thy kith and kin, thou wretch, so that they'll ne’er be heard of more, nor seen again in all thy life.


Hiisi, remove thy sting! thou devil's son (pirulainen)—thy goad, O Äijö's son—thy pointed darts, Lempo—thy leaf-shaped spears! from a human being's skin, from the body of a woman's son, before the rising of the sun, the uprising of the 'morning star.' Stick thy goads in, let thy projectiles fly, plunge in thy spears, make blunt thy jagged spikes in a bear's hard bones, in Bruin's roaring throat, in the home where three Bruins live, in the home of a brace of bears.

If that is not enough, shoot thine arrows forth, launch angrily thy pointed shafts, thy winged projectiles cast into thy mother's hinder part, the armpit of thy nurturer, into thine own begetter's heart, the lungs of her that brought thee forth, not into a human skin, the body of a woman's (kapo) son.

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Boy, come from Pohjola, child—from the real land of Lapps, force thy chubby hand, thy thick thumb press, thy fleshy finger introduce down the copper 'cross-bow's' throat, in front of the gun's big mouth, down the throat of the iron 'churn,' so that the lead sha’n’t hit a man, the ball of tin sha’n’t be discharged.

(If that is not enough, if the boy from Pohjola can't deaden the power of lead, can't block the fiery mouth), O God the father, thou thyself, thyself, O Jesus, lord of air, that best can deaden the power of lead, that flingeth 'kernel-fruit,' that knoweth how to throw a ball, to recite the charm for stopping balls, draw a watery covering, let a slushy coating grow, from the sky let a mildew fall on the quiver of the enemy, some water on the touch-hole drop, grease on the iron orifice, so that the hammer won't strike fire, that the touch-hole will not flash.

If a strange bloodthirsty dog should discharge a leaden ball, should make a bullet slide, direct it into his stumpy tail, into his hind-quarters let it roll. May the hide of an elk from Hiisi's land take possession of his gun, may it twist the touch-hole pan, may it shorten his lead, may it smash his egg,' so that it shall not cause me hurt, not penetrate to give me pain, despite the nature of God, the wish of the heavenly man.



O Ukko, give thine axe, thy silver hatchet, with which I shall cut down a tree. I'll hew a honeyed aspen-tree from

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a honeyed knoll, from a golden mound, I'll shove the thick end towards the sky, on the ground I'll drop the branching head, its thick end towards the nor’-nor’-west, towards the east its branching head. Then rain upon my twigs, on these clean sticks, on the whitened twigs, rain honey from the sky, from the clouds let virgin honey drip; rain honey on the branching top, then luscious juice upon the bark, into the heart let the honey flow.

O Ukko, cause fresh snow to fall, sprinkle a little recent snow on the very slippery ice, on the smooth and slippery heath, that a fellow's track may be unperceived, that a fellow's breath give out no smell. Yet if some tracks be visible, let the track be the track of a hare; if a breath should cause a smell, let the smell be from forest firs.

From a thicket take a switch, from the trunk of three birch-trees, with which thou’lt ramble through the scrub, wilt cause the bushy groves to shake. Beat with the switch a lazy one to these places and these knolls, under the traps of other men, avoiding other people's snares.


O good old man, splendid old man, the golden forest-king, give me of thy ewes and rams. Supply for the sake of men, for the sake of men produce from thy shirt the best, from thy waistcoat the fattest ones, fling thy 'packages of wool,' thy 'little sheaves of flax,' under these snares of mine; poke in thy 'handful of flax,' and thy 'golden distaff bound with wool,' firstly, this very night, intermediately the second night, lastly, at the end of the week, under the silver spar, and to touch the copper trigger-pin.

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O forest-mistress, Simanter, with sheath of tin, with silver belt, that dwellest in the mountain tracts, that makest a din on the copper hills; let the tallest of thy serving-maids, the best of them that serve for hire, open the mountain magazines, with a banging noise the passages. Let a long file of creatures run, let the mountain cattle' rush over the traps of other men, or under other people's snares, to snap my twigs, to let my triggers off. If the cattle run not speedily, won't hurry at a rapid pace, below their hinder feet may Hiisi's hottest coals be set, which with their glowing ash will burn, will scratch the herd with burning sparks.


O Ukko, let some fresh snow fall, sprinkle some fine fresh fallen snow, snow for a sleigh to glide along, fresh snow along which a sledge can dash; hide the berry stalks upon the ground, the stalks of heather cover up.



King of the forest, Kuippana, brisk man of the woods with tree-moss beard! O liberal mistress of the woods, the kind gift-giver of the woods, take a fancy to my salt, approve of these boiled groats, feed a man with thy 'sweet rye cakes,' and coax him with thy 'groats'; induce the 'gold' to move, the 'silver' to wander forth ’long a golden lane, ’long a silver path, into the little golden 'cup,' into the silver 'farrier's tongs.' Drive briskly the animals, the forest-creatures

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hastily, toward my gins that are made of iron, toward my traps that are formed of steel; and then when they are close, when they have reached the spot, let my iron give a snap, jerk the points of steel.


Take a fancy, Forest, to my salt, O Tapio—to my dish of groats, thou golden forest-king with fir-twig hat, with a tree-moss beard, O Mimerkki, the forest's wife with sheath of tin, with a silver belt, O Raunikko [v. Rammikko] that regulates the 'cash,' Louhi, the mistress of Pohjola, let rattle thy hand that is filled with 'cash,' let gleam thine ornamented hand. O son of Tapio, Nyyrikki, spruce fellow with a tall red cap, with a cloak of blue, with a beard of white, take thy tall cap of hoofs, sow the smaller 'hoofs,' sow the larger 'hoofs,' without suspicion let them come, rush in torrents without a halt, strutting along in socks of black, tripping along on their neat feet to my spots for catching game, to my traps that must be trod. Choose white ones for other men, the black ones suit me best; if hereabouts they do not show, then fetch them from a remoter part, from over nine deep woods, from a hundred stages off.


O stalwart maiden, Päistärys [v. Tapio's maiden, Ristikko], that strews flax-stalks (päistär), strew 'stalks of flax,' scatter thy 'cloaks' about in the blue backwoods, in honeyed Metsola; without suspicion let them come, without misgiving let them run, without perceiving the smell of man, without their scenting human scent, to my spots for catching game, to my traps that should be trod, cross-breasted

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ones from Pohjola, black 'coats of fur' from Turjaland, to make into fluttering clothes for lords, to make into garments for men in power.



Ho! Ukko, lord on high, the god above the cloud, when needed hither come, when petitioned hasten here to see these pains, to avert the calamity, to remove the injury from spells, to eject the plague. Fetch me a fiery sword, bring a sparkling blade, with which I'll sever the spell-wrought ills, with which I'll scatter injuries, shall tear out Hiisi's cankerous sore, shall for ever check the brute; I assign the torments to the winds, the pains to the wide abandoned fields.


O Ukko, at the sky's mid-point, at the edge of a thundercloud, come hither to shelter me, to be my aid, my only aid, to remove this plague, to counteract the violent one, to undo the fiendish deed, to tear out Hiisi's cankerous sore, to dislodge the spell-wrought injuries with a fiery pointed sword, with a sparkling blade, on the point of which gleamed the moon, on the hilt of which shone the sun.


O Ukko, at the sky's mid-point, at the furthest end of a ragged cloud, come hither as my guard, to eject the plague, to remove the hurts; take from my mouth the 'bit of Death,' from my neck the 'chains of Manala,' from my shoulders 'Tuoni's reins,' when I am shouting in distress, when I am yelling out in pain.

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Fetch me a fiery sword, shove quickly a sparkling one in a sheath of fire into my right hand; with it I'll slash that evil one, with it I'll claw the toad, the Hiitolainen I shall scourge, shall stop the beastly creature's noise, so that he shall not raise his snout, no more shall shake his head so long as he lives, while the Lord's moon shines.


Arise, O Sea, with thy men, O Landlocked Lake, with thy old men, with thy crowds, O Dweller in the stream, with thy nation to a man, to remove these plagues, to undo the spell-sent harm, to grind this Hiisi and this Juutas crush, to flog the Perkele, to squeeze the De'il (Piru), to dislodge the spell-wrought injuries, to eject the plagues, to eat the curses of villagers, to lap the incantations up.


In the north-east an eagle dwells, a famous bird in Turjaland; under its wing are a hundred men, another hundred above its wing, at the tip of the tail are a thousand men, on every feather there are ten; all the men are girt with swords, the heroes with their instruments, all the iron throng, the people of Väinölä. O eagle, from the northeast come, from Lapland fling thyself, O bird, to save this head, to preserve this life, to remove the spell-wrought injuries, to eject the plagues, to eat the curses of villagers, to lap the incantations up.


O Christopher (Ristoppi), the river-chief, the golden river-king, O Nokiatar [v. Jokiatar], youthful girl, that

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watches over the river-herd, pursue the river-herd with shouts, make them to rush out like a flood from the holes of their stony dens, like a herd of cattle—from the rocks, through a silver 'door,' through a 'window' of gold 1 to soft pillows, to beds of wool. In a hundred ditches have otters been caught, in a thousand streamlets they are found, but in one ditch they must be caught, and it has a silver 'door.' If hereabouts they do not show, then fetch them from a remoter part, from the side of Imantra Lake, along a river of Pohjola, over nine men in search of them, under eight persons on the watch. If thou a full-grown otter guide, drive one the colour of the wave through the silver 'door,' through the 'window' of gold, I'll give thee gold as old as the moon, give silver as bright as the sun.


O cease, good God, from raining, blowing, and maintaining a cloudy sky; O Ukko, god of the sky, thyself; the mighty lord of air, to Russia [v. Viborg] conduct the clouds, take the rainbows to Karjala; they are waiting for water there, an old woman has borne a child, no water has it seen as yet. A little child is there—a boy, and another child—a girl, of one night old, of two months old, they all as yet are unbaptized.



Old Väinämöinen, arise! old man, from sleeping cease, to help a well-beloved son, to be comrade to a famous man in this laborious work, in the hard task laid on him.

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[paragraph continues] They need me now, they need me, they require that I divine a deep origin and remove a great injury, when I start on a war, on a battle with disease.


Old man, old Väinämöinen! the diviner as old as time, when needed hither come, when summoned here approach. A wretched man lies groaning here, one of little strength is in his bed with an unusual disease, with one unknown by name; the floor is rotting underneath, the roof is mouldering overhead. From thine out-house take a bathing-switch, from thy belt a honeyed wing, sweep the fearful (F. holy) sparks away, extinguish the fearful (F. holy) plagues with thy honeyed bathing-switch, with thy mellifluous wing; lift up the disease to the sky, to the wind apportion the pains, for the wind to rock, for bad weather to toss to the distant limits of the north, to the flat, open land of Lapps, or under deep waves, on the black mud there, where there is neither moon nor sun, nor weather that will cause delight.


Thyself, O Jesus, lord of air, the God that livest in the sky, when needed hither come, when summoned here approach; here thy son is lying sick, thine offspring writhes in agony. Some of thy spittle, O Jesus, spit, some of thy foam, Omnipotent, as ointment for the pains, as a remedy for sores; make him well at night, restored to health by day, more perfect than he was before, and better than he was of old.


Creator! come to repeat a charm, O God, to speak, Almighty! to heal, make the sick man well at night, make

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him hale by day; make holy with thy words, assuage with thy formulas (lause), thy words are holy ones, thy formulas are well arranged. From thy pure mouth speak words of continual help on the injuries of every kind, so that anguish sha’n’t be felt above, that no pain shall penetrate the heart, so that it sha’n’t be felt the least, not even a particle of pain.


Pure water! water's mistress! water's mistress, water's master! make me to be healthy now, perfectly well as formerly, since I pray with chosen words and give to thee as offerings, blood to appease and salt to reconcile.



Old man of Hiisi, Hiisi's old wife, the fiery-bearded one of hell! just bring some people from the hill, from the mountain top—some lumps, to press this rascal down, to check this violent one, so that its foot from the swamp can't rise, nor its hoof from the hardened earth.


Blind harlot of Pohjola, Ulappala's wholly blind one! milk here thy milk, let trickle from thy teats into the nasty wounds from iron, on the places wholly burnt by fire, lest they begin to suppurate, lest in eruptions they break out, lest for a long time they should smart, should for a long while be inflamed.

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O Virgin Mary, mother dear, the holy handmaid of the sky, pray weave a little golden belt, pray work with care a silver one; with the silken girdle bind, with the red one tie the damaged spots. If that should insufficient prove, let the Maker's silk be a ligature, the cloak of the Lord be a covering, let the word of God be a bolt, the furs [v. breath] of the Lord be a coverlet; may the Creator's mercy grant, may God's word bring about, that the wound shall not inflame, that it shall not lead to pain.


Old woman! come from Pohjola, holding a little basket-cup, in the basket a copper dish, in the dish a golden plume, to anoint the hurts, to bind the wounds.



O Virgin Mary, mother dear, beloved mother, compassionate, give thy good finger-tips, thy well-made fingers bring, to become my fingers and to be transformed into hands of mine, with which I'll snatch the bit of chaff, shall pluck the 'nettle' out, so that it shall not hurt for long, not long shall irritate.


O Virgin Mary, mother dear, the holy handmaid of the sky, take thy little golden box, just open thy golden chest, take from it a golden hook, snatch up a honeyed line, with

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the golden hook hook out, with the honeyed line drag out (F. attach a line to) the bit of chaff in the eye, out from the place where it entered in.

§ 161. FOR THE PIGS.

Distinguished woman, Suvetar! Nature's old wife, Etelätär, pray feed my pigs, give the 'down-turned noses' food when into the woods I send the swine, the 'down-turned snouts' to abandoned fields, on a shore that faces the sea, that faces the sandy beach of the sea.

§ 162. IN WAR-TIME.


O Ukko, the god known everywhere, father of rulers of the sky, take thy sons’ side, to thy children be a constant aid; hold a moot in the clouds, clear councils in a cloudless sky; from the east let a cloud grow up, from the west send another one, from the north-east a third, push them together side by side, rain water on the touch-hole pans, or snow in front of the locks in the important summer of war, in the miserable year of war, so that the lock shall not strike fire, the touch-hole shall not send up smoke, that the powder's bang, the report of the 'evil meal' shall not be heard, nor directed against a woman's child, a very splendid full-grown man.


O Ukko, the golden king, the ancient father of the sky, protect me with fiery furs, put over me a shirt of flame, when I happen to be in the wars, when I chance to enter the fray. Make me a wall of stone to stand in front of me,

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six fathoms every way, with seven-fathom sides, where I, a lad, will strive against the enemy, so that my head sha’n’t come to harm, the column of the neck sha’n’t break, that my fine hair sha’n’t fall, my forelock shall not be destroyed in the din of the flashing iron, on the point of a frantic blade.


Creator I save, O Nature, save! save, God above, save men with swords, crews with their freight, from an eventful state of war, from murderous waves of men; make haste to give deliverance, to free us from a fix; in a day a man can lose his head, in an hour—a full-grown man.


Jesus! take anxious care, from the sky take watchful care of a child created by thyself, so that the boy shall not depart, a woman's offspring shall not stray from the track by the Maker made; make me a shield of stone, an iron enclosure build, behind which I shall fight, and under which I'll shoot, that death-bolts may not take effect, sharp-pointed iron harm me not, though of cast copper made, or of careful silver workmanship, or the point were of burnished gold; smash into little bits the point, into creases squeeze the tip, into a hook twist up the spike.


Reliable old Väinämöinen! the soothsayer as old as time, clip wool from a stone, from a rock break 'hair,' make from it a shirt -of war, a cover of six fathoms weave, of over six, of over seven in all, under which we'll shoot, behind which we shall fight, we'll a fierce people over-

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throw to the ground, both men and swords, the evil people slanting-wise, the soldiers on their sides.


O Väinö's girl, with temples of gold, with copper skirt, with a silver belt dash water on the touch-hole pan—make sparkle the touch-hole pan—ta’en from nine water-springs, from the contents of pitchers three, lest the powder should explode, the 'evil meal' [v. rye] should detonate, lest it discharge the lead, let fly the balls of tin ’mong our good men, into our men's breast-bones; let the flint be on its guard, let saltpetre keep its word!



Ho! Ukko, god on high, the father that rules the sky, bring the swords of a thousand men, the sabres of a hundred braves, that won't glance off against a bone, that will not break upon a skull, as I am going on a war, to a combat hand to hand, to mighty battle-fields, to those slaughter-plains where the blood reaches up to the leg, the red blood to the knee.


Smith! arise from under the wall, from behind a stone, thou hammerer, thyself Ilmarinen the smith, that art a most skilful hammerer, forge a new sword for me, to put in my right hand, forge a dozen pikes, an ample sheaf of spears, that I may start off to the war, to plains where men are killed by the war-horses’ feet, by the hoofs of a battle-foal, on bloody beds, on gory sites.

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Ho! Ukko, lord on high, the father at the sky's midpoint, procure me straight snow-skates, for the left foot rapid skates, on which I'd smoothly scud through the great forest tracts, across the swamps, across firm land, across the moors of the North to the spots where game is born, to the land where 'money-pelts' are bred.



Creator, save! O Nature, save. Save, God that dwells above! Creator, thy creation save! O God—what thou hast made, with words by the Creator framed, prescribed by the Holy Ghost, from evil-words, from results of words, from jibberings, from jabberings, from incantations of parish folk, from spell-wrought ills of the village folk, from the bad designs of men, from the spells of whores, from the murmurings of a 'bristly snout,' from a 'long-hair’s' witcheries, from jealous persons of the land, from the water-sorcerers.


O Ukko darling, my beloved, my darling father in the sky, hark to my golden words, when I with chosen words beseech. I am not urging thee to go a-fishing, to a war, to encounter the swords of men, but I urge thee now to counteract the bad results of charms, of the spells of whores; come to free me from the harm, from the bad results of the spells, from the machinations of the hags, from the plots and scheming of the men, as my well-wisher would desire, as my ill-wisher would not desire.

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How at such times is one to sing and how lament, when the pains of labour come, constraint is laid upon a girl, the belly suffers agony, the womb is in great distress?

Thus at such times is one to speak and thus express oneself: O Ukko, king of the heavenly realm, the god above the clouds, come hither, come immediately, they need thee here at once, here helpless infants gasp for breath, babes as they come to the outer air (F. courtyard); a lass is seized with the pains of birth, a woman with griping in the wame; come close at hand to observe if she is under village spells (F. curses), under murderous designs of men, under old women's secret charms, or machinations of old hags. If she is under spiteful spells, the murderous designs of parish folk, release the lass from the binding spells, the woman from their heavy bands, from the evil words of 'bearded mouths,' from the evil words of beardless ones. Throw open the 'fleshly chest,' draw quickly back the lock of bone, send into the world the 'traveller,' 'wee fingers' into the outer air (F. courtyard), to creep about in the world, to grow in the outer air.

When the time of danger is at hand, the day of distress arrives, in thy right hand take a golden club and with it break the obstacles, the 'door-posts' smash, put ajar the Creator's locks, break in twain the bolts at the back, that a big or a little one may go, one of small strength may walk, come bouncing out to the outer air (F. courtyard), come skipping out into the world (F. farm), into the world of all mankind, the country of other travellers.

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Ho! Ukko, god on high, thyself the mighty lord of air, take thy golden axe, thy silver hatchet take, and with it break down obstacles (F. tree-trunks), cut the 'fleshly threshold' through, break the 'sinewy gate,' put the locks of bone ajar, tear rents to serve as chimney-holes, and as windows open holes, that into the world a 'traveller' come, that one of little strength may pass; let fall a 'flat stone' from the stove,' a 'backmost flat stone' with a bang, from the 'oven' knock out a 'stone,' break a 'pebble' from the 'wall,' a boy from the lassie's lap, a child from the woman's hips, or death will come, life's departure will draw nigh to this painful womb, from the belly's violent throes.


Ho! Ukko, god on high, the ancient father in the sky, when needed hither come into this snaky vapour-bath; here a poor wretch is screeching loud, a wretched woman makes lament, is biting the twigs of the bathing-switch, is cutting away the leaves, on her knees at the porch's door, on her hands at the threshold of the bath; come at once, soon hurry up, still sooner we have need of thee, the earth is cracking under foot, the sky is splitting up above, while the distressed is crying out, while the tormented woman yells; a bottle of pure water bring, fetch some the colour of sleet, fetch a stoupful of luscious juice, a canful of honey bring, blow into my mouth the half of it, the other half make into salves, with which I'll salve between the legs, shall anoint the hinder parts, shall cause the door of flesh to move, shall open up the gate, shall free the lass from childbirth pains, bring into the world a traveller, as a senseless one is in the womb, a dolt that knoweth not the way.

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Old wife Kave, Nature's daughter! golden Kave, the beautiful, that formerly allayed great pain, allayed great pain and freed from throes; since thou freed the moon from a cell (F. halo), freed the sun from a rock, so free from these throes as well, allay these pains as well, free a lass from childbirth pains, from the belly's violent throes; with thy hands bring the babe from the womb, the boy from the lassie's lap, release it to rejoice the men, into the world of all mankind; if it should be a boy, let it come with the hubbub of a man, if a girl—more quietly, if a lassie with less of noise: a boy is in haste to go to war, a girl is in haste to be betrothed.


O Porotyttö, the Northern girl, a knapsack take from the hut's far end, a sack from the bath-house nook; fetch hither some slimy stuff from all the water's fish, from behind nine seas, nine seas and a half; run into the sea knee-deep, 'Blue-stocking!' half-way in; then holloa and hulloo to the perch, the roach, to all the water's fish: 'Give spittle, ruff! burbot! some slimy stuff, blue sik! bring some, red salmon! send me some, and with it I'll anoint the legs, I'll stroke her down the sides, shall relieve the lass of the childbirth pains, the woman—of fulness in her wame.'


Old Väinämöinen, thou old man (ukko), the diviner as old as time, from Esthonia bring a scythe, from Hell—a hook for mowing hay; with it I'll stroke the sides, and pass along the hinder parts, I'll separate the woman's legs,

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[paragraph continues] I'll tug the thighs apart, I'll loosen the 'bench' at the end, break the 'bolt at the back' in two, I'll open the 'land' in the under parts, burst through the headrigs of the 'fields,' send forth on the earth a 'traveller,' a human being to the light of day, to walk upon his feet, to work with his extremities.

O Hiisi, come from Hiitola, thou humpback,—from the home of gods, with a golden sleigh, and in the sleigh a golden axe, with which thou'lt break down 'trunks of trees,' with which thou’lt scatter obstacles, wilt set ajar the 'Maker's slit,' wilt open up the 'water gate,' wilt make it as wide as a lake, as ample as Lake Koitere. O Hiisi, whet thine axe, sharpen the level edge on three whetstones, on five Esthonian stones, on the head of seven hones, on the end of eight whetstones; pull down a portion of the 'fence,' the interval between five bars, set the woman's thighs apart, separate the old woman's legs, as the bit of a war-horse does, like the traces of a splendid foal.


O Moon, set free, O Sun, release, Great Bear, continually lead a man from unfamiliar doors, from unknown gates; guide to the earth a traveller, a human child to the light of day, from these small nests, from the cramped abode. If in the womb there is a boy, strive to bring him forth into the world, if in the lap there is a girl, pray steer the girl ashore; release the child to see the moon, to rejoice at the sun, to behold the Great Bear, to regard the stars, a child that has not noticed them, has not perceived them yet.

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From Mary I beg for land, from Peter—an inheritance; dear Mary! give me land, good Peter!—an inheritance, give me land gratis, in charity—a piece of land. I will not ask for very much,—for a little I will not go away—as much of ground as a floor requires, as my backbone can lie upon, for me to play my games upon, a field for me to dance upon, a yard for me to run along, the edge of a field to roll upon. Choose every sort of wild animal on the honeyed sward, on the honeyed knoll, bring to that piece of ground for me from the woods the good things of the woods, from the land the best things of the land, to be my joy at eventide, my delight in the morning hours, bring gold beneath the centre beam, beneath the lovely roof, and honey to the timbers’ cracks, to the site of the walls—a luscious juice.


My 'little bullfinch,' O Jesus, wash, my 'wee snow-sparrow,' cleanse—with water by the Maker made, ordained by the Holy Birth—from water's anger and from earth's, from the secret rancour of a frog; let the earth receive its 'spice' again, let the water its anger take, may the earth drink down its 'spice' like milk—its 'spice' to below the ground, to below the earth, down below nine fields, may the water drink its anger down, swig it off like wort, down under swamps and moss, down ’neath deep waves.

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O Virgin Mary, mother dear, that hast a pure mother's countenance, that art the oldest of womankind, the tallest of soft-skirted ones, with golden bracelets on thine arms, with golden trinkets of thy head, with golden shoes upon thy feet, come hither, we have need of thee, we are shouting for thy help; bring thyself here immediately, bareheaded, with dishevelled hair, without thy girdle, without thy skirt, to restore to health, to give repose, before the rising of the sun, the dawning of the god of dawn.

Make the bath-house hot, the stones to throw out steam, with cleanly bits of wood, with logs by water cast ashore; fetch water beneath thy dress, bath-switches under cover bring, 1 then cause a honeyed steam to rise, cause a honeyed vapour to ascend through the glowing stones, the burning flags, lest it burn my bairns, my offspring should destroy; soften the pleasant bathing-switch, moisten its honeyed spreading head, with the switches foment the wounds.

To stone-heaps with the wounds from iron! To woodpiles with the wounds from trees! To stony stoves with the wounds from stones! Make the sufferer well at night, without pain by day, by virtue of the word of God, through the mercy always of the Lord.


O Virgin Mary, mother dear, when needed hither come, in thy hand a golden cup, in thy wrapper a honeyed wing. Make a honeyed bath-house hot, make warm the room of

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deal with coveted logs of wood, which the wind has brought ashore, the surf has steered ashore, a wave of the sea has cast ashore.

Go to the bath-house secretly, by a side-way to the bathing-house without being heard by the village-folk, without news reaching the villagers; anoint the door with ale, the gate with wort, the hinges with small beer wet, bedaub the handle with fat, that the door sha’n’t creak, nor the iron hinges speak, nor the gate sing out, nor the handle squeak; in a spinny break off a bathing-switch, in the copse snap one off, on the brink of an angry stream, or near three rapids; from the rapids gather stones, from a sandy heath some junipers; from the side of the moon take a cup, a ladle from under the arm of the sun, with which thou’lt water draw, some water from the Vento stream [v. spring]. Cause steam to rise, make heat ascend to the stones that feel no pain, to the flags that feel no smart, through the stones of the stove, the moss-stopping of the bath; take from thy cloak a bathing-switch, from thy bosom—tender leaves, soften the honeyed bathing-switch, moisten its hundred tips at the centre of a honeyed stone; sweep away the fearful [F. holy] 'sparks,' 1 remove [F. quench] the fearful [F. holy] plagues with thy virgin-honeyed wing, with thy honeyed bathing-switch, into a little golden cup, into a copper-sided vat; in the stove put the pains, in the bathhouse moss—the plagues, in a wool-chest—the angry sores, in a box—the cruel smarts.


Enter the steam, O God, the hot steam—Father of the air! to restore to health, to give repose; enter the bathhouse

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secretly without being heard by a worthless wretch, without news reaching the villagers, without being known at another farm. Here in the bath a sick man lies, in the hot bath—a feeble man; throw on the ground excessive steam, the bad steam send away without his being soiled by dirt or breathed upon by a chilly breath, without being angrily steamed by steam or by too much water washed away.

There is nothing for steam to find, for hot steam to choke. 1 Whatever water I throw on these hot stones, into honey may it change, may it turn into luscious juice; may a river of honey flow, a lake of virgin honey plash through the stove of stone, through the bath-house stopped with moss; may the breath of the Lord exhale, may the Creator's warm breath dash through the bones and joints, through the sinews and the flesh, through the warm blood, the red arteries.


O bee, the active man, the active fellow, the lively bird, on thy wing fetch luscious juice, bring honey on thy tongue from six flower-tops, from seven heads of grass, as a fluid to harden iron, as a juice to temper steel. Then, on thy arrival here, cook the honey on thy tongue, on thy wing-tip—the luscious juice, as stuff to mellow an iron blade [F. tongue], as a means to soften an iron edge [F. mouth], lest the iron should lacerate, the steel should thoughtlessly destroy; wherever iron shall penetrate or powerful steel shall gash, may the luscious juice on the place remain, honey—where the iron has cut, sweet juice—on the iron's bite.

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O frosty maiden, the icy girl, when needed, hither come, bring snow for sores made by Fire, for the injuries by Panu—frost, snow-lumps from the bed of a lamb, some ice from the pen of a full-grown sheep [v. kammo], [v. from a blue sheep's interior], with these snow-lumps form a crust, with the ice form a coat of ice (like that) with which the seas are crusted o’er, the lakes are coated o’er with ice.


A frosty maiden, an icy girl, sits in a crouching attitude at the mouth of a frosty spring, in the hollow of an icy well, a golden ladle is in her hand with which she draws the water up. Come here when needed now, when beseeched to help, cause thy pool to shake, cause thy spring to dash down on the places that are burnt, that have long begun to suppurate; throw some icy water down, bring some the colour of slush.

Water is eldest of the brothers, Fire the youngest of the daughters, may Water, the eldest, keep awake, may Fire, the youngest, fall asleep!


O Ismo, of the daughters of the air, into this sore place force thyself, come like the wind, make speed like a thought, pour thyself out like water's foam upon thy son's iniquities; some water from thine apron throw on the fearful scars from fire, on the places that are burnt, so that they shall not smart for long, shall not for long be found inflamed.

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Rise from the ground, O Iron Cock, O Iron Hen, spring quickly up to eat the pains produced by Fire, to sip Fire's 'broth' from the places that are burnt, that have received sore injury, so that no pain be felt above, no qualm shall penetrate the heart, that the sides of the wound shall not inflame, nor smart for very long.


O Virgin Mary, mother dear, beloved mother, compassionate, like a golden cuckoo come, like a silver turtle-dove to the burns (F. fires) of one in agony, to the burnt places of a sufferer; come at once, soon hurry up, still sooner we have need of thee, in thy hand a golden cup containing water icy cold in which are copper twigs; dash water on the scabs, on the places that are burnt. If that is not enough, dig out a fish from a sandy heath, from a deep pit—a pike, to eat the pains produced by Fire, to lap Fire's 'broth' from a wretched human skin, from the body of a woman's (Kapo) son.


Rise, maiden, from the dell, from the moist earth, dear lass! from inside a frosty spring, from the hollow of an icy well, thy shoes and laces all over ice, the folds of thy skirt all over rime, thy jacket a mass of ice, thy clothes entirely hid with snow, in thy bosom a hunk of ice, under thine arm a lump of ice to gag Fire's mouth, to weigh down Panu's head.


Rise from the dell, dear Maid! from the gravel, thou clean-faced one, 'Blue-socks!' from the corner of a swamp,

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[paragraph continues] 'Red laces!' from a dale; from the stream raise frost, from the swamp some cooling stuff for the places that are burnt, for the fearful scars from fire, in thy folds wrap up the fire, in thy skirts the flame, in thy clean dress, in thy white clothes.


Crone of the North! with crooked jaw, with crooked jaw with scanty teeth, fetch slush from a slushy place [v. Hymmö], from Jähmö's [v. Jämmö's] chamber—ice; sprinkle some water icy cold, throw some the colour of slush on the 'burnt out spark,' on this 'burnt soot,' lest it begin to suppurate, lest it discharge with pus.


Boy! come from Pohjola, from the cold village, thou full-grown man, from thy father's place, great man, thou comrade—from Vento's host; when thou comest bring some frost, both frost and ice, from Hymmo's window—frost, from Jämmö's closet—ice, some blood of an autumn ewe [v. summer goat], some blood of a winter hare; freeze with the frost, ice with the chilly ice, the injuries brought by Fire, the thorough scorching by Panu caused.


Come, Maid of fire! thou well-known Maid of fire, to extinguish Fire, to repair Panu's work; in thy socks bring frost, on the edge of thy shoe-latchets—ice, bring frost, bring frost, bring ice, fetch iron hail to throw on the ugly scars produced by Fire, on Panu's brutal work. If little ensue therefrom, poke a heifer's hide as a plug with Fire's

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mouth, over Panu's head as a covering, wipe away the fearful (F. holy) sparks, sweep away the fearful (F. holy) 'waves' from the places that are burnt, from the havoc wrought by Fire.


Ho! Ukko, lord on high, the old man of the sky, that hast made fast the chain, and locked up air's magic words, into this fire fling thyself, into the flame sink down with water in thy mouth and head, a water-hat upon thy nape; step along the fiery path, make sparkle the sparkling path, whisk water icy cold on the fearful scars from fire, cause a wind to blow, an icy blast to rush to the places that are burnt, that are thoroughly scorched by fire, so that they shall not suppurate, nor crack like soot.


O Vesi-viitta, Mountain's [v. Vaitto's, v. Vaitta's] son, the lovely offspring of a rock, [v. Suoviitta! the child of Kaleva, 1] that in a mountain hast slept a year, lain for a long time in a rock, tether thyself to this glowing ash, into this Panu cast thyself, make Fire incapable, make Panu impotent; bring water in a birch-bark dish, fetch some in a two-hooped one from between two stumps from ’neath a birch's triple root, some chilly water icy cold for the fearful damage caused by Fire. Fire has wrought mischief here, Panu committed an evil deed against the will of God, against the honour of the Blest.

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O Virgin Mary, mother dear, the kindly mother, compassionate, in another direction go, to gloomy Pohjola, to a snowy mountain top, to the hill's north side where a woodgrouse has its nest, a hen is bringing up her young; bring snow, bring ice with which thou’lt quench the fire, wilt make the flame subside, without being wholly burnt by fire, without being injured by the flame. If that is not enough, put into the flame (panu) thy shirt, into the fire—thy copper belt, fling them into the fire's control, spread them among the glowing coals; give me thy blue silk scarf for a bandage round my hand and with it I'll quench the fire, I'll subdue the flame.

May the raging fire fall asleep, may Mary make it sleep, may darling (F. golden) water keep awake, may Jesus from above keep watch.


O Panu, Aurinkoinen's son, the Auringotar's progeny, that under forge-fires lives, that takes a rest upon the hearth, conceal thyself among thy coals, among thine ashes disappear, tether thyself to thy sparks, in thy hot embers hide thyself, to be used by day in a house of fir, in a stove of stone, to be kept concealed at night in a bin of coals, in the middle of a 'golden ring.' 1 May darling (F. golden) Fire with exhaustion full, may little Flame subside, may Water—the oldest—keep awake, may Fire—the youngest—fall asleep.

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O Panutar, best girl, when needed hither come to quench a fire, to reduce a flame; give thy skirts a shake, make their borders sway, put the fire in thy furs, the flame—in thy clothes, throw it into thy rags, keep it safe in thy ragged clothes, lest it burn one on the cheek, or hurt one on the side.


O Nunnus [v. Munnus] 1 of the daughter of the air, O Höykenys of the Panutars, when summoned hither come, when implored make haste, when thou comest bring some frost, bring frost, bring ice, in the air there is frost enough, both frost and ice; freeze with the frost, ice with the ice, freeze with the frost my finger tips, ice with the ice my hands, make the fire incapable, silence its crackling noise, that it shall not tinge my nails, nor scorch my hands.



O chosen woman, Kunnotar, O golden 2 woman, Kärehetär, come away from melting gold, from smelting silver come away; in thy bowl I put bits of gold, bits of silver—in thy cup, these bits of gold are as old as the moon, the bits of silver as old as the sun, brought by my father from a war, obtained with trouble in the fray, when I was a child, when I tumbled about as a brat, as tall as father's knee, as high as mother's spinning-staff.

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Clean mistress of Metsola! O forest's golden king, hearken to my golden words, to my silver utterance. I decoy with gold, with silver I allure; enter on an exchange of gold, of silver an interchange; more coloured are thy 'bits of gold' thy 'bits of silver'—of darker hue, my bits of gold are more glistening, my silver is more glittering and was brought expressly from a war, with threats from foreign lands, was from Russia carried off, below Riga was obtained in strife.


O master of Tapio's farm, O mistress of Tapio's farm, old man of the forest with hoary beard, the forest's golden king! O forest-mistress, Mimerkki, the forest's kind gift-giving mother, 'Blue-cloak'? the old wife of the scrub, 'Red-socks'! the mistress of the swamp, come to make an exchange of gold, of silver an interchange. My bits of gold are as old as the moon, my bits of silver as old as the sun, the bits of gold are Swedish gold, Swedish—the glistening silver bits, in conflict brought from Tornio, from behind the frontier—in a fight, my father brought them from the wars, laid hands upon them in the fray; in a purse they'll get worn away, will blacken in a tinder-bag, if none will change my gold nor exchange my silver bits.


O friendly mistress of the woods, O forest's golden king, come to take my bits of gold, to choose out silver bits. For thy 'gold' take my bits of gold, for thy 'silver'—my silver bits, for thy 'hoofs' I give bits of gold, for thy 'paws'—my silver bits, for the benefit of Tapio's farm, to

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give delight to the Forest Home (Metsola). Spread thy lovely linen handkerchief under my bits of gold to prevent their falling to the ground, their being sullied in the dirt; these bits of gold are famous bits that were brought from Germany, obtained from Riga in a fight, in a battle in Denmark fought.


O Kalma, rise and bestir thyself to watch my thief, to look after my goods, to get my property, to recover what is ta’en away with thy heavy, frightful hands, with the chains of the Omnipotent.

O Hippa, one of Hiisi's daughters, O Kipinätär, Hiisi's cat, tear his thighs right well, as sparks of fire torture him, so that he shall not sleep at night, shall not repose at all by day, without first bringing back, without his putting in its place what he has ta’en, what he has robbed, what he has taken of my goods, what he has got, what he has hid.


O Otavatar, maid of night, the steady watcher during night, come here, I have need of thee, move hither, I summon thee to keep a watch upon my goods, to look after my property, to observe what has disappeared, to have returned what was ta’en away.



Old mother Eine! rise up first, life's ruler (haltia) rouse thyself before a sorcerer rises up, a jealous one jumps up,

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a presumptuous person moves, or a wizard catches hold, to help a well-beloved son, to be comrade to a famous man. If thou hast no time thyself, thyself art disinclined, send hither of thy serving maids, give thy servants the command; the best send hither, not the worst, the tallest, not the shortest one, to go about (F. to swing) with me, to walk with me.


I, wretched fellow, do not know, not I, an unfortunate son, from whom I should implore relief, from whom—firm strength, if from the father in the sky, or from the mother in the earth.

Hulloa! old woman, mother of me, O lovely mother that brought me forth, long in the earth thou now hast lain, for an age hast murmured in the sward; my mother! from the earth arise, my parent—from the burial-place with thy strength, with thy might, to give a little fellow strength; bring a fur coat from Tuoni's land, Tuoni's fur coat with its thousand knobs, in which I'll dress myself to guard against these sorcerers. In a village are many sorcerers, ’longside the road—divining-men, near the water witches are in scores and envious persons everywhere.


O Jesus, come as my defence, to be my strength, to be my might, Lord Jesus do not cast me off, do not abandon me, good God, to the magic spells of whores, to the 'curses' of filthy sluts, to the cogitations of old hags, to the malicious thoughts of men, to be cut by every 'branch,' to be reviled by every 'frog.' Stand before me as a wall, stay behind me as a fence, lest a sorcerer's arrows take

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effect, or a wizard's bolts of steel. Bring me a fiery sword, fetch one the hue of frost, cause the gleaming sword to flash into my right hand and with it I'll slash the wicked men, crush the foul persons at a blow, with it I'll flagellate the curs and strike the giants (koljumi) heavily.


Higher I push myself, to the sky above my head; Creator! come to exorcise, O God, to speak; now's the Creator's time to exorcise, the time for God to speak; God, seat thyself, lower thyself, thou merciful, to be my only aid in overthrowing envious ones, in overcoming my enemies. Release a man from the injuries, from the injuries, from the hindrances, from the great village-sorceries, from the malignant cursing spells, from the mutterings of whores, from the outpour of womankind, from the witchery of worthless hags, from a 'long-hairs' secret plots, from the damage of the swarthy man, from the filth of the evil one, from a relation's spoken 'words,' from the 'utterances' of a relative.


Old wive Kave! Nature's daughter, Kave the golden and beautiful, come, bewitch the sorcerers, curse those that 'curse,' upset the envious on land, the witches in the water crush; weave me a cloth of gold, rattle me out a silver cloth, make ready a defensive shirt, prepare a copper cloak under which I'll stay at night, which I can wear by day, by good God's help, by the true Creator's offices, lest a son should go away, one borne of a mother should part, lest a mother's offspring go astray, a woman's progeny disappear.

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O maid of mist, the maid of fog, from a stone clip 'wool,' from a rock break off the 'hair,' make me a shirt of mist, cast for me a copper cloak under which I can be at night, which I can wear by day, when that sorcerer is throwing spells, when the 'wolfskin coat' is reviling me, when the Lapp is singing songs at me.


Rise, maiden! from the spring, from the pool, 'soft petticoat'! O 'slender fingers,' from the grass, from the withered grass, O 'golden locks,' to act as my support, to be active in my defence, to overturn the envious, to crush those wishing ill, to destroy the bad, to conquer the enemies in the space in front of me, in the shadow at my back, at my side on either hand, at both my sides. Drive away the young sorcerers, set down the old divining-men, oppress the old divining-men, tread them down into mossy swamps and thyself keep dancing over them. In the land are plenty seers, in the earth's bosom—men of skill, in every dell are sorcerers, in every place are envious folk, witches at every gate and soothsayers at every fence.


Earth's daughter! maiden of dry land, hark to my golden words. Raise thy men from the earth, from the firm dry land—thy full-grown men, a hundred from where a stake is set, a thousand from the corner of a stump, a hundred swordless men, a thousand men with swords, to be my people, to be my strength, to be a whole nation for me amid these sorcerers, in the wizards’ neighbourhood.

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Earth's old man! from the ground arise, Field's son! from the headlands of a field, from the side of a coloured church, from the side of a 'hundred planks.'

To catch a squirrel I take thee not, I invite thee not to chase a hare. I do not wish to hunt a lynx, nor yet to snowshoe after elks, I take thee as my own defence, to be my help, my only one, to be my refuge, my support, with whose protection I shall work, with help of whom I'll set a fence, by aid of whom o’er waters row.

There is a boy in Pohjola, a tall man in Pimentola, whose bristly beard did gleam like a leafy grove upon a slope, whose hair did sway like a clump of pines upon a hill; come, boy! from Pohjola, tall man! from Pimentola to give a puny fellow strength, to give a small man manliness, so that I shall not be destroyed, shall not be overcome with shame in the dells of these sorcerers, in the diviners' neighbourhood.


O 'red hat,' Tuoni's son, with eye askew, with crooked jaw, knock down the sorcerers, upset the land's jealous men; in the belly shoot the sorcerers, the devils—in their hinder parts, gouge the eyes of the jealous man. Whoever peers with jealousy, or pries with eyes askew, drag a bloody rug, dash down a gory rug from the sky to the earth and tie it across their eyes.


Ho! Ukko, the father up above, the observant man of the sky, be on thy son's side, to thy children a constant help;

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remove the witches from my side, keep constant watch on the jealous men, saddle a hundred stallions, provide a thousand men with swords to walk with me, to run noisily with me, to overthrow the jealous men, to cause the evil ones to smart, in the space in front of me, in rear of me, above my head and at my side, and on either flank, so that a son sha’n’t go away, the son of a mother shall not fall ere the term by the Creator fixed, determined by the Holy Birth (i.e. the Saviour).


My Ukko! the father up above, the old father in the sky, knock up an iron [v. oaken] fence, set a steel [v. of rowan] enclosure up, reaching from earth to near the sky, from the sky as far as the earth to be a shelter for my folk, for my people—a screen; make the stakes of steel, of land-snakes make the withes, with adders interlace, tie lizards on, who'll keep an eye on sorcerers, keep constant watch on jealous men; leave their tails to flap, their middle part to sway, their snouts to rise, their solid heads to oscillate, hither to flap with their tails, thither to hiss with their heads, outwards to buzz with their mouths, outwards to splutter with their tongues, to give a dig to listeners, to give a nip to prying men, to crush those wishing ill, to squeeze to the ground the evil ones, to eat the spells of villagers, their incantations to lap up, to remove the sickness brought by spells, to scatter hindrances.


Ukko! an iron enclosure forge, build an iron fence with iron stakes, with copper withes; raise high the fence, from earth as far as the sky, which a sorcerer cannot climb, a

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wizard cannot pass; make the gates of steel, of forged work—the pairs of stakes, bind them round and round with snakes, interlace with swarthy snakes, their heads turned out, their tails turned in, that their throats may sing in shrieks, their mouths hiss out, that their heads may scream, so that an 'elf' (keijolainen) must make a round, a jealous man go round about, by the back of the fence, by the outside of the gate. If sorcerers depress themselves, depress the fence as much, that no land snake at all can get in underneath the fence, if sorcerers raise themselves, raise the fence as much, that no bird of air at all over the fence can fly, if an eagle has flown aloft, still higher raise the fence, if a viper crawl along low down, bring the fence still lower down.


Ho! Ukko, the god on high, from the sky let fall a pipe, in haste drop a copper horn, let tumble a golden shield, a pipe which I'll put on, a copper horn in which I'll dress, that a sorcerer's arrows can't stick in, nor a wizard's steel; bring thy golden axe, thy silver hatchet with which all the Lempos I shall cut, shall hew the devils in bits, with their arrows shall slay the sorcerers, the witches with their iron knives, the wizards with their own steel, with their own swords the evil men.


Ho! Ukko, the lord on high that sits there everlastingly, the ruler of the thunder-clouds, the governor of fleecy clouds, thresh out thy fiery barn, let sparks fly out from the sparky barn, tear holes in the sky, in the 'lid of the air' make openings (F. windows), let thy thunders crash,

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thy claps of thunder crepitate, rumble in dry-weather clouds, clatter in the bellows of the air, strike fire above the air, from the sky pour fire to overthrow the jealous men, the witches to destroy, to stare at sorcerers, to snatch the wizards away; plenty of wizards are on the roads, of sorcerers in every dell, of witches at every water-side, of jealous men in every place, moving about near the cattle-shed, walking along the fence's side.


From the water, water's mistress! rise, thou 'blue-cap' from the waves, from the spring, soft-skirted one, from the mud, thou clean of face, to give strength to a strengthless man, to support an unsupported one. Raise men from the sea, heroes from landlocked lakes, bowmen from streams, and swordsmen from the wells. I do not want them against myself, nor yet against my followers, I'll take them against my enemies, ’gainst the people of the enemy.


In the mountain are there people, is there help beneath the rock? In the mountain there are people, there is help beneath the rock; give, Mountain, of thy might, of thy people, Mountaineer! to help a well-beloved man, to surround a lonely one, lest he be eaten causelessly or be slain without disease.


Old Väinämöinen! come, the diviner as old as time, to speak on my behalf, at my side to utter 'words'; bring hither a fiery hound, a dog of iron hue, to eat the spells (F. curses) of villagers, to snap up village sorcerers.

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If that is not enough, give me of thine old folk that for an age have sat, all mouldy have taken breath, in the earth have long reposed, a long while rested in a grove, to be my people, to be my strength, to be a whole nation for me; bring me a sword with a fiery edge, give me air's sword with which I'll strip the spell-brought harm, I'll hew to the ground the injuries, I'll chase away the corpses of the dead, I'll crush the black-breasted ones, with which I'll frighten Hiisi's folk and flog the devils away from my right side, from the shadow on my left, bowling along like a golden ball or like a silver chip, that a sorcerer's arrows shall not stick nor a wizard's steel.


From the earth arise, black [v.v. gold, iron] cock! spring quick up, thou iron hen, nimbly to move about with me, to rush noisily with me, to overthrow the jealous men (then send the sorcerers asleep); peck out an eye of the jealous one, slit the nose of the sorcerers.


Men of the sea! arise, ye heroes of landlocked lakes, from the gravel, ye 'scaly cloaks,' from the pool, ye 'sandy shirts,' that are tall as pillars of cloud, as high as great forest firs, a hundred men with swords, a thousand full-grown men of iron, to follow in my company, to rush noisily with me, to overthrow the jealous men, to overcome the enemies, so that no foe shall eat too much, no enemy snatch much away.


Up, swordsmen! from the earth, ye heroes as old as the earth, ye glaive-men, from the wells, ye bowmen, from the

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streams; rise, Forest, with thy men, thou Wilderness, with all thy folk, with thy might, old man of the hill, thou water-Hiisi, with thy tribe [v. frights], Mistress of water, with thy folk, Chief of the water, with thy host, ye maidens, from every dell, from the pools, ye soft-skirted ones, to help a man without his like, to be comrade of a famous son, that a sorcerer's arrows shall not stick, nor a diviner's steel, nor an 'archer’s' instruments, nor a witch's iron knives.



O Virgin Mary, mother dear, beloved mother, compassionate, come here, come soon, still sooner we have need of thee; blood is flowing to the ground, the bubbling gore is gushing forth; stick in thy little thumb, bring thy charming finger near to bar the blood's path, to plug the flow, lest as a river it should flow, as a lake discharge itself. But if it pays no heed thereto, does not subside the very least, go for turf behind the house, for moss from the bathhouse logs, to plug the flow, to dam the rush. If still it pays no heed thereto, from the sky bring here five handfuls of flax, six distaffs bound with wool, to plug the fearful hole, to patch the evil 'gate'; throw thy fine-spun petticoat, thine apron spread on the rents made by wretched iron, on the rips from a slender blade, lay on them a healing leaf, put a 'golden' stopper in, that the blood to the ground sha’n’t flow, that the red blood shall not spill.


O Virgin Mary, mother dear, beloved mother, compassionate, when needed hither come, when summoned

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here approach, as we need thee soon, so much the sooner hurry up, a golden needle in thy hand, in the needle's eye a silken thread with which thou’lt fasten up the veins, draw together the arteries, with a slender needle wilt sew them up, wilt stitch them with a golden thread, so that the red blood shall not fall, that not a single drop shall drip; from the temples take the silk, undo the ribbon on thy head, tie with thy silken hands, with thy hair-plaits bind the holes that are torn, the wounds that are cut. If that is not enough, take from Väinämöinen's belt the yellow-coloured cloak, if no heed is paid to that, snatch the Creator's silk, take the Almighty's cloak, with the Creator's hair-plait tie, with the Maker's wrappers bandage up those rents produced by iron, the gashes by a 'blue edge' (F. mouth) made; make them whole at night, without pain by day, at night draw over them a skin, by day let grow a cuticle more perfect than before, better than formerly.


O Virgin Mary, mother dear, the holy little serving-maid, fly along an edge of cloud from the sky to earth, to bind up veins, to stop blood's mouth; from the water bring a birch-bark slice, slice from an alder tree a chip, draw the knife from thy sheath, seize thy pocket-axe with which thou'll cut a chip, wilt shave a shaving off, to place on the wound that is cut, on the hole that is torn, to close the mouth of the hole, to dam the passage of the blood, lest the 'milk' to the ground should flow, the carmine drop upon the field.


Thou lovely woman, Maariatar, when needed hither come. A calamity has happened here, iron has gone raging mad.

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[paragraph continues] Spin a stout thread on thy stout spinning-staff, sew up the wound produced by iron, knot the ends of the vein, where the carmine is shaken out, a drop of blood is trickling down, that to the ground the blood sha’n’t pour, in a hot stream shall not gush forth. If that is not enough, thy tiny kettle bring, in which the blood will be seethed, the bubbling gore be heated up, that a drop of blood sha’n’t drip, sha’n’t sputter on the dirt.


O charming woman, Helka, come here, there is need of thee, to arrange the veins, to knot up the ends of veins. From the swamp take moss, fetch some grassy knolls to block blood's mouth, to dam blood's path; pray stop with sods of turf, stuff meadow hair-grass in, cover over with little stones the hole that has been torn, so that the 'milk' sha’n’t reach the ground, no carmine drop upon the field.


Lord, fling thy gloves, O Lord, throw down thy mitts as a stopper on the fearful hole, as a patch on the evil gate, that to the ground the 'milk' sha’n’t flow, that the carmine shall not fall. May the Maker's lock be a lock, may the Lord's word (v. bar) be a bar, that the milk to the ground sha’n’t flow, nor the guiltless blood—upon the dirt, despite the nature of God, against the intention of the Blest.


Come, Ukko of the air, when summoned here approach to close blood's mouth, to stop the flow, that on my beard it shall not spurt, not pour upon my ragged clothes; stop it up with turf, toss on some lumps from a knoll, but if it

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pay no heed thereto, thrust in thy bulky hand, press thy thick thumb, bring thy fleshy finger near, as a stopper in the fearful hole, as a patch on the evil gate, that the blood sha’n’t flow, that the veins sha’n’t throb; lay on a healing leaf, apply a golden [v. honeyed] water-lily leaf.


Old white-headed Ukko come hither at the nick of time, place thy plough with its sharp end, turn thy ploughshare with its point to the far end of Tuonela, to the headland of a holy field, tear up a pile of turf, a bit of a rush-grown knoll; bring a spigot from Tuonela, a bar from Kalma's pen to stop blood's mouth, to bar blood's path; stop its mouth with turf, toss on some pieces from a knoll, draw a rug as a covering over it, a skin upon it as a sheet, by day draw the covering, at night cause the skin to grow.


Thou fiery-throated Laplander, dry-throated Northerner (Pohjolainen) that drank up rivers of fire, sipped streams of sparks, come to sip up blood, to stop blood's mouth, and the guggling of the gore; pray fetch a stopper from the Fells, a rivet-nail from Pohjola as a stopper for the bloody flood; get ready a copper pipe, for pay make a pipe of tin, draw the blood to lungs, to the heart direct it straight, in the heart is the place for blood, its cellar is in the lungs, under the liver is its hut, under the spleen its nest.


O Homma, the briskest king, when needed hither come. For a long time back the veins pulsate, the fleshy members are quivering, the blood is coming like a flood, the gore is

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wildly spirting out. Come to stop the blood, to bar the rush, to close blood's mouth, to squeeze its throat; pray fetch a little bit of flesh, tear it from Lempo's thigh, from the evil spirit's loin to plug this flood, that the milk to the ground sha’n’t flow nor a man's 'beauty' mix with dew.


Thou fiery Hiisi, come from fiery Hell with thy three sons, with thy daughters two; O Hiisi, fling thy hair, press down thy shaggy glove to bar blood's path, and if it pay no heed thereto, tear a collop from thy fat thigh, to plug the fearful hole, to patch the evil gate.



We row, we are taking our time on [v. to] the waters of those sorcerers, in [v. to] the wizards’ neighbourhood, on billows capped with foam, on the man-eating open sea, that drowneth full-grown men; if the oars should be too short, the rowers—of little strength, the steersmen—little babes, the owners of the ship—mere bairns, give Ahti, other oars, bring me a better steering-oar, give assistance to the oars, relief to the steering-oar, that I can row straight on, can traverse the waters easily, can cruise on the open sea, can hurry through the waves. If a wave exalt itself, rise extremely high, O Ahti, still the waves, ye sons of Ahti, still the swell, so that a wooden boat shall speed, the iron thole shall bang and creak, making the wide waters sparkle, forming curves in the narrow waters, so that the wind shall sway the boat, the west wind dash it along without being touched by hand, without assistance from the oars.

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O Ahti, give thine oars, O water's master, give thy boat, new oars and better ones, another stouter steering-oar, with which I'll gently row, on the open waters cruise in front of a jealous person's house, past the entrance of the witches’ gate; on the waters witches are numerous, there are jealous people in every place, Esthonians in groups of five and six, the Kyröläinens are in tens. Grant that the wooden boat shall speed, that the wooden boat shall sway, shall glide like bubbles on the lake, like water-lilies on the waves, that the sun shall not in anger shine, that the moon shall not in anger gleam, that the wind shall not in anger blow, that the rain shall not in anger fall.


Old woman beneath the waves! the woman that lives near foam, rise with thy hand upon the foam, ascend with thy breast upon the waves to collect the foam, to take in charge the foam-headed waves in front of a sailing-boat, in the way of a tarry boat, lest they knock against a guiltless man, upset a man who is innocent.


Thou joyous bird 1 of the air, fly whither I command, to the furthest end of the eternal east, to the home of the dawn of day, distend thy cheeks with air, blow a delightful breeze, a favourable gale for me, that I can now go anywhere on these wide waters, on these broad open seas.


Rise, maiden, from the spring, from the gravel, slender-fingered one, rise to fetch water, pray bring energetic water,

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sing forth serviceable water, get by devices helpful water from the river Jordan, from an eddy in the holy stream, with which was christened Christ, the Almighty was baptized.



Ho! Ukko, god on high, the golden king of the air, cause a raging storm, raise the tempest's mighty strength, create a wind, launch forth a wave; don't bring it against myself, but against the hostile boat, ’gainst the host of the enemy.


Mist maiden, maid of fog, air maiden Auteretar! with a sieve sift mist, keep scattering fog, from the sky let fall thick fog, lower a vapour from the air on the clear surface of the sea, on the wide-open main; don't bring it against myself, nor yet against my followers, but against the enemy, ’gainst the forces of the enemy, lest they see to attack, lest they flee from me.



O Virgin Mary, mother dear, beloved mother, compassionate, come hither from the sky, descend from above the clouds, bring water from far away, fetch honey in a little stoup from the sky above, from behind the courtyard of the stars, as ointments for the pains, as embrocations for the hurts; milk honeyed milk from thy honeyed breasts into a golden-handled cup, into a copper-sided one;

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thyself anoint the exhausted one, stroke the sufferer with thy beautiful wee hands, with the finger without a name.

If that is not enough as an ointment for the pains, wash with Jesus’ blood, souse with the gore of the Lord, rub with the Maker's tears, foment with the 'water of grief,' release a person from accidents, release from evil days, from oppressive 'bands,' from tight-fastened 'belts of pain.' 1


O Virgin Mary, mother dear, beloved mother, compassionate, come to anoint the sores, quickly to still the sufferings. Pray bring some salves from there, from above nine skies, nine salves, eight magic medicines, take the wing of a finch, a wee snow-sparrow's spotless plume, a feather from a swallow's tail; with the salves anoint, foment with the emollients, smear with the grease that Jesus was anointed with, with which the Omnipotent was healed, when by Pilatus racked, when tortured by the evil power; anoint above, anoint below, anoint as well the middle parts; the first time salve and make the body quite well below, the intermediate time anoint and make the middle free from pain, the last time salve and free from smarts the parts above; let fall a salve to flow through bone, through joints, through the hot flesh, through loosened veins, don't allow the sores to suppurate, to discharge with pus, to swell up into lumps or into blisters to break out.


Thou beautiful Mother of Pains, great mistress of the Hill of Pain, old maker of salves, that meltest sweet stuff, cook reliable salves, the very best of magic cures, try them

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thyself upon thy tongue, taste the flavour with thy mouth, whether it be a potent salve, if thy concoction is suitable to be laid upon a hurt, to be poured upon a wound. If the ointment be a potent one, come here where there is need of thee, make flutter thy skirts, give the reliable salve as an ointment for the hurts, as a remedy for wounds.


Dear Ukko, the Maker up above, the God that dwelleth in the sky, boil water, some honey boil, concoct a goodly salve in the sky above, above six 'speckly lids'—cut up a salmon fish, add a bit of salmon trout, a pat of butter, one of fat, and a rasher of the flesh of swine [v. of Palvonen]; concoct a potent salve with which I'll smear the exhausted one, smear bones till they get fractureless, and joints till they get fissureless, that they shall feel no pain, that they shall know no ache.


O Ukko, the golden king, the powerful father of the sky, with thy breast push clouds, join them together end to end, rain honey from the sky, rain honey, rain water down, rain down a goodly salve, the best of magic remedies; from the sky thrust the herding-horns, from the clouds send the pipes, from which let an ointment pour, on the earth let a magic medicine grow, to be laid upon a hurt, to be poured over wounds.


O bee, our bird, our bird, the pleasant bird, just fetch some honey from Metsola, some luscious stuff from Tapiola, from the honey-dropping sward, from gracious fields o’ergrown with scrub, bring honey from the meadow's

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head, from the end of the gracious scrubby field, from the cup of a golden flower, from seed-vessel of a hundred herbs, cook the honey on thy tongue, in thy mouth melt the luscious stuff to be laid upon a hurt, as a healing remedy for sores.


Thou bird of the air, the bee, fly away to another place, across nine seas, nine seas and a half, without sitting on a reed, without resting on a leaf; to an island in the open sea, to an islet in the sea; pray bring some salves from there, bring goodly salves from nine anointers, from eight men skilled in healing arts. There is an islet in the sea, on the islet a honey-lake, delightful honey is therein, a goodly salve is there that is suitable for veins, is serviceable for the joints.


Thou bee, thou bumble bee, fly away with fluttering flight across nine seas, nine seas and a half, to the new house of Tuuri, to the roofless one of Palvonen; there they make salves, cook honey properly on a single cooking fire, made with nine sorts of wood, in nine clay pots, in lovely kettles that would fit a finger point, would hold a thumb; into the honey thrust thy wing, thy feather—in the melted butter, in the young maiden's chest, in the old woman's box; thou’lt get enough of honey there, thy full desire of honeyed sweets for frost bites caused by bitter cold, for places touched by cruel air.


Rise from the earth, thou bee, from the knoll, thou honey-wing,' fly away with fluttering wing above the moon, below the sun, along the shoulders of Charles's Wain, ’long

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the back of the Seven stars, fly to the Maker's porch, to the chamber of the Omnipotent. There they make salves, and ointments (F. fats) they prepare in silver pots, in kettles of gold, here there is honey, water there, here there are other salves; in the middle the honey seethes, the melting butter at the sides, the honey at the southern side, the ointments (F. fats) at the northern end. Into the ointment dip thy claw, thy feather—in the melted butter, from there bring salves, fetch the magic remedies, nine salves, eight magic remedies, place them in Jesus’ hands, in Mary's gentle mouth. Try them, Jesus, with thy tongue, Mary, in thy gentle mouth, whether they are the salves, the Almighty's magic remedies with which the Maker was besmeared, the Omnipotent was healed, when by a devil (pirulainen) pierced, when tortured by the evil power.


O bee, the pleasant bird, thou bustling 'blue-wing,' fly away with fluttering wing to old Väinämöinen's place; snatch a honeyed wing from old Väinämöinen's belt, and stroke with it a fainting man, heal one that has come to harm, that the sufferer can sleep, the loud screamer get repose, can rest without mouldering away, slumber without his being choked.


From the south, O swallow, fly, O 'blue-wing' fly with whizzing wings, bring a feather from the genial land, from the warm land—a downy plume, with which I'll stroke a helpless man, heal one that has come to harm, shall sweep away the fearful (F. holy) 'sparks,' shall remove (F. quench) the fearful (F. holy) plagues.

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Grant, Jesus, a barley-year, a corn-summer,—O God, that we poor wretched sons in wretched Bothnia, on the borders of Savolax can take in our hands a drinking-cup, can put to our mouths a brandy flask, that servants too shall get some ale, hired servants also taste the brew, drawers of stone [v. water]—some wort of malt.


201:1 In the first edition of the Kalevala R. 21, 259, there is another variant—Iki Liera, son of Tiera.

201:2 Probably with allusion to tiera, 'the lump of snow that forms under the feet in walking.'

202:1 The best man, the leader of the procession and master of the ceremonies, is here speaking.

204:1 Wild animals, game.

205:1 In Lapland the tyrä was a ball about the size of a walnut made from the down of flies glued together and was used by Lapp witches and sorcerers. In Finnish the word means a testicle, but is used here as an epithet for the cabbage grub.

208:1 i.e. bears.

211:1 i.e. out in the open air.

214:1 Turf smoke made to keep flies away from the cattle at night.

217:1 In the index the word is printed Livetti by Lönnrot.

222:1 i.e. by the sufferer.

222:2 v. O ruddy maiden, Pullitar.

226:1 i.e. the awful or terrible tree from having been made by a devil (piru), § 212, i. The Zịrians call it the sös-pu, 'the dirty or abominable tree.'

229:1 The name of a particular man was probably thought of when this line was recited.

231:1 A variant of the last two lines transports the action to recent times:—

E’er I from my gun have wiped the snow,
Have promptly loaded it with shot.
231:2 Holohonka—seems to be a proper name, though it may be only an epithet.

232:1 Or runs, which form the entrance to the trap.

232:2 Ganander, p. 51, translates, bird by 'roe deer' and lower down by 'elk.'

232:3 The sticks and twigs refer to the trap.

232:4 Some recite this over the cattle when driven into the cowhouse for the night on the eve of St. Michael's day in autumn.

232:5 The 'holy field' often means the 'churchyard.'

233:1 The boy that picks up the arrows that have been shot.

233:2 Old man of the Knoll is an epithet of Tapio and of the bear.

234:1 i.e. wild animals, birds, game of any kind.

236:1 In winter the Finnish hunter dresses in pure white when he goes to the forest after game (Tervo, p. 3).

237:1 It should be 'Queen,' as Kuuritar is a feminine form.

239:1 'It is useless' or some such words must be understood here.

239:2 The speaker.

243:1 I have taken this variant from Kanteletar, ii. 354.

249:1 The ring-finger.

251:1 There is play here on the word kynsi, which means both 'nails' and 'hoofs.'

261:1 'Window' and 'door' mean the trap.

274:1 So as not to be seen by envious persons or evil-wishers, and rendered ineffectual.

275:1 i.e. the spell-brought sickness that burns like sparks.

276:1 See note, p. 166.

280:1 v. the offspring of a Blue-cloaked One (F. sini-viittainen).

281:1 i.e. a hearth.

282:1 According to Ganander this song was recited by a man about to geld a horse.

282:2 Gold, here, has a reference to game. According to Ganander (p. 36) Kärehetär was the mother of foxes and this song was recited by a trapper.

298:1 Or nightingale.

300:1 An epithet for the pains of labour.